Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis

Adult neurogenesis is controlled by a wide array of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that have been extensively studied in the case of the hippocampus (Ming and Song 2005; Zhao et al. 2008; Abrous et al. 2005). One of the first characteristics of adult neurogenesis is its exponential decrease over life span (Seki and Arai 1995; Kuhn et al. 1996). Hippocampal neurogenesis is present at much lower level in aged animals but still can be reactivated by general stimuli or appropriate signals (Kempermann et al. 2002; Drapeau and Abrous Nora 2008). Adult neurogenesis is also largely influenced by the genetic background, as demonstrated by comparing basal levels of hippocampal cell proliferation in various mice strains (Kempermann et al. 1997, 2006), although these differences may also depend on the phase of neurogenesis examined (Schauwecker 2006). Finally, gender and estrous cycle are considered as potent intrinsic modulators of hippocampal neurogenesis in rats (Galea et al. 2006) but not in mice (Lagace et al. 2007), emphasizing the genetic dependency of these processes. On the other hand, at a systemic level, physical exercise and enriched environment versus stressful experiences, including sleep deprivation, increase and decrease neurogenesis respectively, via interactions between multiple cellular pathways and molecular factors (Olson et al. 2006; Mirescu and Gould 2006; Fabel and Kempermann 2008; Meerlo et al. 2008).

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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