Frontotemporal Dementia and Picks Disease

Frontotemporal dementias, including Pick's disease, are associated with focal atrophy of the frontal and or temporal lobes. They are characterized by considerable gliosis and the loss of cortical neurons. Astrocytosis, Pick bodies (inclusion bodies) and Pick cells (ballooned neurons) are present in a subset of the patients. The term describes a range of similar conditions, with different pathologies. The etiology of these diseases is largely unknown. Patients with frontal atrophy display a...

Peroxiredoxin Based System in Cells and Organs of the Body

The cell and tissue distribution of thioredoxins and thioredoxin reductases has been the focus of intense research and has also been reviewed in some depth 2, 7 . In contrast, only a handful of studies have so far been aimed at describing the expression pattern and function of Prdx enzymes and Srx in different cell types or organs of the body. Peroxiredoxins appear to be widely expressed in different organs of the body 182 , and the intracellular distribution of the different isoforms also...

Oxidative Damage to Carbohydrates

The endogenous Maillard reaction, that is, the formation of Maillard reaction products in vivo, commonly known as the glycation reaction, is recognized today as one of many non-enzymatic modifications of proteins that not only contribute to the aging of the body's proteins, but may also have an important regulatory role in both physiological responses and pathological processes 118 . A major outcome of the studies on glycation was the recognition that oxidative reactions, and by inference,...

Dmpd

Table 13.1 Comparison of plasma and serum levels of H2S determined by several commonly used techniques relevance to the cardiovascular system. Male WKY and spontaneous hypertensive rats Male Sprague-Dawley rats I soprenaline-induced myocardial injury Type 1 diabetes Commercial sulfide- Plasma sensitive electrode Commercial sulfide- Plasma sensitive electrode Zinc acetate DMPD Plasma Control rats, 30 M Myocardial injury, 50 Control rats, 65 M Isoprotenolol treated rats, Control rats, 40 Diabetic...

Info

10 Wentworth, P., McDunn, J.E., Wentworth, A.D., Takeuchi, C., Nieva, J., Jones, T., Bautista, C., Ruedi, J.M., Gutierrez, A., Janda, K.D., Babior, B.M., Eschenmoser, A. and Lerner, R.A. (2002) Science, 298 (5601), 2195-2199. 11 Lerner, R.A. and Eschenmoser, A. (2003) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100 (6), 3013-3015. 12 Babior, B.M., Takeuchi, C., Ruedi, J., Gutierrez, A. and Wentworth, P. (2003) Proceedings ofthe National Academy ofSciences...

Protein Regulation via Sulfination Dependent Proteolysis

A range of proteolytic events have been found to be regulated by cysteine modification. The classic example is the cysteine-dependent autolysis which activates the proteolytic activity of most matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 96 . MMPs are expressed in a latent form, and during activation, a conserved cysteine residue within the cysteine switch domain is oxidized to the sulfinic acid form, which exposes the zinc ion and permits autolytic cleavage of the pro-domain, thus enabling proteolysis of...

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) primarily affecting young adults. The disease usually initially follows a relapsing remitting course, during which symptoms, such as visual disturbances, numbness, weakness or fatigue, appear and then subside. The pathological features of multiple sclerosis include demyelinated lesions, inflammation, axonal loss and glial scarring. Multiple sclerosis has an autoimmune component whereby the body's own immune cells attack the...

List of Authors

Gustavo Barja obtained his PhD in biological sciences from the Complutense University of Madrid in 1981. He continued his scientific research, performing short stays at the Universities of Paris VII (France), UCLA (USA), Brescia (Italy) and ETH (Switzerland). He has dedicated his research activities to the study of free radicals and oxidative stress in animals, focusing on aging and longevity. He is currently full professor of physiology at Complutense University, where he teaches comparative...

Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction are leading causes of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition leading to plaque formation. Atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by the subendothelial accumulation of oxidized lipids and inflammatory cells, covered by a fibrous cap of modified smooth muscle cells and their extracellular matrix. As a prelude to atherosclerosis, macrophages internalize oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein oxLDL and form foam cells,...