Abdominal Pain

Abdominal pain is a frequent cause of hospital admission and missed school days. Abdominal pain is divided into two categories: functional and organic. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) encompasses a group of conditions characterized by chronic or recurrent symptoms that are not explained by biochemical, anatomical, or structural abnormalities (Saps and Di Lorenzo

2009). There is a higher incidence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in children with FAP. Prospective studies have shown that children of parents who have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) where the most common presentation is chronic abdominal pain often report more gastrointestinal symptoms, have a higher rate of school absenteeism, and have more doctor's visits than children whose parents do not have IBS (Levy et al. 2004). Through the process known as "enabling" parents can inadvertently reinforce illness behaviors in their children when they attempt to be protective, compassionate, and nurturing (van Tilburg et al. 2009).

Abdominal pain due to organic disease accounts for less than 10% of the cases of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Genitourinary and gastrointestinal disorders are the most common organic causes of RAP. Recurrent urinary tract infection and hydronephrosis or obstructive uropathy can present with abdominal pain. Eventually, abnormal urinalysis and pyuria will focus attention to the underlying problem. Hemolytic uremic syndrome is the most common cause of renal failure in children (Jernigan and Waldo 1994).

Constipation is a common disorder and patients may experience crampy abdominal discomfort in association with the urge to defecate. A suggestive history and the demonstration on physical examination of bulky stool retained in the rectum should initiate a trial of appropriate treatment (Scott et al. 2000).

Particular aspects of the history that should alert suspicion of disease include significant recurrent pain in a child under the age of 3, consistent localization of pain away from the umbilicus, frequently awakening from sleep by pain, or repetitive vomiting. Pernicious or bilious vomiting that is accompanied by abdominal pain should always alert the clinician to the possibility of an intestinal obstruction. Malrotation or incomplete rotation of the mid-gut is a disorder that may present as a bowel obstruction and predisposes to the formation of intestinal volvulus (Scott et al. 2000). Vomiting, abdominal and flank pain, and ileus are the presenting signs for pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is uncommon in childhood and the etiology is diverse. The incidence of pancreatitis is unknown; however the disease occurs as a result of trauma then up to 50% of the cases will be complicated by the development of a pseudocyst (Hebra et al. 2008). There is a less than 2% prevalence of cholelithiasis in children although the number of cases is rising (Wesdorp et al. 2000).

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Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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