Answers

1. The answer is C. Unrelieved acute pain can lead to increased levels of catecholamines, which in turn can cause tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, hypercoagulable state, abnormal breathing, and delayed gastric emptying. It can delay wound healing and suppress immunity, predisposing to infections. The end result can be delayed recovery and discharge from the hospital. Choice D is unethical.

2. The answer is A. Care plans are essential in the management of pain on the ward as it is primarily the nurse who will be providing initial assessment of pain. It involves a detailed discussion with the patient and his/her family.

4. The answer is D. Pain assessment tools should be reliable, valid and easy for the patient, nurse, and physician to use.

5. The answer is B. Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) score is 3 out of a maximum of 10.

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