Answers

1. The answer is C. Cancer patients experience visceral, somatic, and neuropathic pain or a combination of these. Pain can result from radiotherapy. Ninety percent of patients with advanced cancer suffer from pain. Interventions have a role in controlling cancer pain which is resistant to other forms of treatment.

2. The answer is B. Opioids are not indicated ifthe pain is mild. Anticonvulsants can be used as adjuvants, and the modified analgesic ladder has four steps.

3. The answer is B. Short-acting opioids are introduced initially to treat moderate to severe cancer pain. Long-acting opioids are added when inadequate analgesia is suggested by the persisting pain. Small doses of long-acting opioids are added to PRN doses of short-acting opioids until the contribution from the latter is one-fifth of the total daily opioid requirement. Breakthrough pain is covered by PRN dose of a short-acting opioid.

4. The answer is D. In case of widely disseminated bone metastases, hemi-body irradiation is an option for pain relief.

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