Pain as a modality has the perceptual component, the visceral component, the emotional component, and the referral component. A careful history of pain, its duration, frequency, character, intensity, radiation, and exacerbating factors are significant inputs to decide on the strategy of pain control. Ulcers due to autoimmune diseases can be diagnosed by inci-sional biopsy which aids in microscopic and immunological evaluation. X-rays with intraoral films, panoramic views of the jaws, magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joints, and cone beam computerized tomograms are used to aid in diagnosis. These aids help in delineating the extent of bony pathology giving rise to the plethora of symptoms which includes pain.
Electromyography is used to study the activity of the masticatory muscles. Electric pulp tester is used to monitor the sensitivity of the pulp. Hemograms aid in planning surgical procedures for the gums. A local anesthetic can clinch the diagnosis of pain on the affected side if administering it abolishes the sensation of pain at that point in time.
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