Improper occlusion of the teeth can precipitate pain in the jaw joints. Ultrasound is useful for the alleviation of pain arising from a temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Occlusal splints can give relief for jaw joint pain, and resisted jaw exercises can help strengthen the joints. Tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline) have been reported to have analgesic effects in the management of TMD by blocking reuptake of noradrenaline and serotonin. A second mechanism attributed is the antagonistic effects on NMDA receptors (Feinmann 1985).
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