Morphine

Morphine is the prototypical strong mu agonist opioid and is still the most commonly used opioid worldwide. Orally administered morphine is available in both immediate acting and extended release formulations. A combination of both immediate acting and extended release morphine is typically used in chronic pain management. Morphine metabolites include morphine-3-glucuronide (hyperalgesia, agitation, myoclonus; can accumulate in renal insufficiency or prolonged high doses), morphine-6-glucuronide (more potent than morphine; can accumulate in renal insufficiency or prolonged high doses), and normorphine (allodynia, myoclonus).

Many opioids are available orally in extended release preparations. The most common are given below.

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