Pharmacological Interventions

Pharmacological interventions are the mainstay of pain management strategies in any group. Pain medications should be used in stepwise approach as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) (Boswell 2007). NSAIDs and non-opioid analgesics are recommended as first-line medications. If the pain persists or increases, opioids can be added to manage mild-to-moderate pain. Stronger opioids are recommended for moderate to severe pain as part of multimodal therapy. Adjuvant medications (anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, and anticonvulsants) which help modulate pain can be added at each step to complement therapy. Furthermore corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and muscle relaxants can also be used for short period oftime to complement pain management.

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