Abram SE, ed. Pain medicine. The requisites in anesthesiology. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2006.
Ballantyne JC, Fishman SM, Abdi S, eds. The Massachusetts General Hospital handbook of pain management. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2009.
Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman AG, eds. Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2009.
Krantz MJ, Martin J, Stimmel B. QTc interval screening in methadone treatment. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(6):387-395.
Marcus DA, ed. Chronic pain: a primary care guide to practical management. New Jersey: Humana Press; 2005.
Melzack R, Wall PD, eds. Handbook of pain management: a clinical companion to Wall and Melzack's textbook of pain. London: Churchill-Livingstone; 2003.
Ries R, Fiellin D, Miller S, Saitz R, eds. Principles of addiction medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2009.
Savage SR, Joranson DE, Covington ED, et al. Definitions related to the medical use of opioids - evolution of universal agreement. JPSM 2003;26(1):655-67.
Thorn CF, Klein TE, Altman RB. Codeine and morphine pathway. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19(7):556-8.
Tollison CD, Satterthwaite JR, Tollison JW, eds. Practical pain management. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2002.
Warfield CA, Bajwa ZH, eds. Principles and practice of pain medicine. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004.
Was this article helpful?
Do You Suffer From Chronic Pain? Do You Feel Like You Might Be Addicted to Pain Killers For Life? Are You Trapped on a Merry-Go-Round of Escalating Pain Tolerance That Might Eventually Mean That No Pain Killer Treats Your Condition Anymore? Have you been prescribed pain killers with dangerous side effects?