American Pain Society. Principles of analgesic use in the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. 6th ed. Glenview, IL: American Pain Society; 2008.

Block BM, Liu SS, Rowlingson AJ, Cowan AR, Cowan JA, Wu CL. Efficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia. A meta-analysis. JAMA 2003;290:2455-63.

Carr DB, Goudas LC. Acute pain. Lancet 1999;353:2051.

Grass JA. Patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:S44-61.

Hudcova J, McNicol E, Quah C, Carr DB. Patient controlled opioid analgesia versus conventional opioid analgesia for postoperative pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;4.

Liu SS, Wu CL. Effect of postoperative analgesia on major postoperative complications: a systemic update of the evidence. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:689-702.

Macintyre PE. Safety and efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87: 36-46.

Weinger MB. Dangers of postoperative opioids. APSF Newsl. 2007;21:61-3.

Wheatley RG, Schug SA, Watson D. Safety and efficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87:4-61.

Section VI

Acute Pain Management

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