Morphine acts directly on the respiratory centers of the brain stem and produces decreased minute ventilation by decreasing tidal volume. Respiratory depression is more likely with high doses of opioids. Respiratory depression is seen less with partial agonists/antagonists since they are mostly selective for kappa receptors. Morphine decreases the responsiveness to carbon dioxide, shifting the carbon dioxide response curve downward and to the right (Martin 1983). The cough center in the medulla can also be depressed with morphine (Grossman 1988). Naloxone is very effective in reversing respiratory depression quickly.
Was this article helpful?
Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.