As labor pain becomes severe, the unmedicated patient's minute ventilation increases by >75% in first stage and 150-300% during second stage of labor. This results in maternal hypocarbia and alkalosis. These changes lead to uteroplacental and fetoplacental vasoconstriction and a leftward shift of the maternal oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, potentially resulting in fetal hypoxemia. Effective regional analgesia will markedly diminish maternal hyperventilation. Oxygen consumption increases by 40% in stage 1 and 75% in stage 2. This is attenuated, but not eliminated by regional analgesia. Parenteral opioid administration does not effectively prevent hyperventilation, in contrast to regional anesthesia. Most mothers and fetuses are not adversely affected by the respiratory changes occurring with labor. However, in patients with marginal uteroplacental function effective regional analgesia may be advantageous.
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With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.