Effective management of chronic non-malignant pain necessitates the consideration of biological, psychological, and social covariates that influence the experience, presentation, and clinical course of such chronic conditions. Evolving research in neuroscience continues to unravel the physiological substrates for interactions among these factors. Consequently, it is incumbent on the clinician, therefore, to avoid the inclination to dichotomize between physical/sensory aspects of pain and psychosocial factors. A multimodal approach, i.e., employing psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments, is necessary to address the complex interactions among the biopsychosocial covariates accompanying pain conditions.
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