The traditional approach to management of ischemic pain includes administration of the opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A wide arsenal of oral and parenteral analgesics is used for patients with ischemic pain in perioperative period as a part of multimodal pain management. However, patients with ischemic type of pain, who are not candidates for a definitive treatment, are frequently experiencing intractable pain in spite of administration of these medications. The effectiveness of traditional analgesics is typically limited by their side effects frequently presenting before their analgesics effects. Therefore, other pain management modalities has been evolving to treat the ischemic pain, as discussed below.
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