Phenyltrimethylammonium Muscarinic Receptors
Muscarinic receptors play an essential role in regulating the functions of organs innervated by the autonomic nervous system to maintain homeostasis of the organism. The action of ACh on muscarinic receptors can result in stimulation or inhibition of the organ system affected. ACh stimulates secretions from salivary and sweat glands, secretions and contraction of the gut, and constriction of the airways of the respiratory tract. It inhibits contraction of the heart and relaxes smooth muscle of blood vessels.
As early as 1980, it became apparent that a single muscarinic receptor type could not mediate the actions of ACh. Research on cholinergic receptors has increased since the 1980s, as these receptors represent potential targets for useful drugs for disease states that are becoming more prevalent because of our increasing population of aged persons. The outcome of these studies has been the discovery of several muscarinic receptor subtypes.
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