Phytonadione is considered relatively nontoxic even at high doses. Rare cases of hemolytic anemia have been reported, and the manufacturer has reported anaphylactic reactions following use of the injectable product. Menadiol is also considered relatively nontoxic. Menadione, in contrast, can produce hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and ker-nicterus in newborns, especially premature infants. In addition, menadione can cause hemolytic anemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.45 For these reasons, it is no longer marketed in the United States.

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