Gallium (67Ga) Citrate
The most commonly used radioisotope of indium is in-dium-111, which is produced in a cyclotron by proton bombardment of a cadmium target according to the 112Cd(p,2n)111In nuclear reaction. Indium-111 (im = 67.3 hours) decays by EC to stable cadmium-111 with principal y-ray emissions of 171 keV (91%) and 245 keV (94%). The radiotracer is isolated by dissolution in hydrochloric acid to form indium chloride (111In). In aqueous solution, lower valence states of indium have been described, but they are unstable and are rapidly oxidized to the triva-lent state. In acid solution, indium hexaaqua complexes [In(H2O)6]+3 are stable at low pH but are hydrolyzed (above pH 3.5) to form a precipitate of indium hydroxide In(OH)3.5 Indium is stabilized in solution above pH 3.5 if it is complexed with a weak chelating agent such as sodium citrate and stronger chelating agents such as 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) or diethylenetriamine pen-taacetic acid (DTPA). Monoclonal antibodies and peptides are radiolabeled with indium by using compounds called bifunciional chelating agents. Bifunctional chelating agents are molecules that can be attached to the antibody or peptide as well as to the radionuclide.
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