with dextran. It is administered intravenously and taken up by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). It is indicated to enhance T2-weighted images used to assess lesions of the liver. Hepatic tissues with decreased RES function retain their usual signal intensity, so the contrast between abnormal and normal tissue is enhanced.
Ferumoxsil (GastroMARK). Ferumoxsil is a turbid, slightly viscous, dark brown to orange-brown aqueous suspension of silicone-coated, SPIO for oral administration. The suspension distributes to the stomach and small intestine within 30 to 45 minutes and passes distally to the large intestine within 4 to 7 hours after ingestion. It is indicated to enhance the delineation of the bowel and to distinguish it from organs and tissues that are adjacent to the upper regions of the GI tract. Its usefulness in the distal GI regions is limited by transit time and dilution. Both T1- and T2-weighted images may be enhanced with ferumoxsil.
Gadobenate Dimeglumine (MultiHance). Gadobenate dimeglumine is an ionic, clear, colorless, gadolinium-containing solution. This salt solution has 6.9 times the osmolality of plasma. It is indicated to enhance the visualization of central nervous system (CNS) lesions associated with an abnormal blood-brain barrier or abnormal vascularity of the brain, spine, or associated tissues when using T1-weighted sequences.
Gadodiamide (Omniscan). Gadodiamide is a clear, colorless to slightly yellow, gadolinium-based contrast agent indicated to visualize lesions with abnormal vascu-larity in the CNS and body. It is a nonionic gadolinium complex administered by intravenous injection with an os-molality of 2.8 times that of plasma. Gadodiamide decreases both the T1 and T2 relaxation times in tissues where it is distributed. In clinical MRI, the effect is prima rily on the T1 relaxation time resulting in an increase in T1-weighted sequence signal intensity.
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