O Chemical Classification

The chemistry of antibiotics is so varied that a chemical classification is of limited value. Some similarities can be found, however, indicating that some antibiotics may be the products of similar mechanisms in different organisms and that these structurally similar products may exert their activities in a similar manner. For example, several important antibiotics have in common a macrolide structure (i.e., a large lactone ring). This group includes erythromycin and olean-domycin. The tetracycline family comprises a group of compounds very closely related chemically. Several compounds contain closely related amino sugar moieties, such as those found in streptomycins, kanamycins, neomycins, paro-momycins, and gentamicins. The antifungal antibiotics nys-tatin and the amphotericins (see Chapter 6) are examples of a group of conjugated polyene compounds. The bacitracins, tyrothricin, and polymyxin are among a large group of polypeptides that exhibit antibiotic action. The penicillins and cephalosporins are j-lactam ring-containing antibiotics derived from amino acids.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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