Sodium benzoate is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and alcohol. It is used as a preservative in acidic liquid preparations in which benzoic acid is released.
Sodium propionate occurs as transparent colorless crystals that are soluble in water and alcohol. It is an effective antifungal agent that is used as a preservative. Sodium propionate is most effective at low pH.
2,4-Hexadienoic acid is an effective antifungal preservative. It is sparingly soluble in water and has a pKa of 4.8. Sorbic acid is used to preserve syrups, elixirs, ointments, and lotions containing components such as sugars that support mold growth.
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