Figure 29.15 • Silymarin from milk thistle.

immunomodulation and in lipids and biliary function. The overall effect is caused by the electron-scavenging properties of flavanolignans, the enhanced regenerative capacity of the liver, and the alteration of liver cell membranes that blocks toxin entry.


Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. The dried rhizome of valerian contains an unpleasant-smelling volatile oil that is attributed to isovaleric acid. Despite the odor, valerian is a safe and effective sleep aid.

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