Oxidation Involving Carbonoxygen Systems

Oxidative O-dealkylation of carbon-oxygen systems (principally ethers) is catalyzed by microsomal mixed function oxidases.163 Mechanistically, the biotransformation involves an initial a-carbon hydroxylation to form either a hemiacetal or a hemiketal, which undergoes spontaneous carbon-oxygen

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bond cleavage to yield the dealkylated oxygen species (phenol or alcohol) and a carbon moiety (aldehyde or ketone). Small alkyl groups (e.g., methyl or ethyl) attached to oxygen are O-dealkylated rapidly. For example, morphine is the metabolic product of O-demethylation of codeine.249 The antipyretic and analgesic activities of phenacetin (see drawing of acetaminophen metabolism) in humans appear to be a consequence of O-deethylation to the active metabolite acetaminophen.250 Several other drugs containing ether groups, such as indomethacin (Indocin),251,252 prazosin (Minipress),253,254 and metoprolol (Lopressor),122,123 have reportedly undergone significant O-demethylation to their corresponding phenolic or alcoholic metabolites, which are further conjugated. In many drugs that have several nonequivalent methoxy groups, one particular methoxy group often appears to be O-demethy-lated selectively or preferentially. For example, the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl moiety in both mescaline255 and trimetho-prim232 undergoes O-demethylation to yield predominantly the corresponding 3-O-demethylated metabolites. 4-O-demethylation also occurs to a minor extent for both drugs. The phenolic and alcoholic metabolites formed from oxida-tive O-demethylation are susceptible to conjugation, particularly glucuronidation.

Body Detox Made Easy

Body Detox Made Easy

What exactly is a detox routine? Basically a detox routine is an all-natural method of cleansing yourbr body by giving it the time and conditions it needs to rebuild and heal from the damages of daily life and the foods you eat and other substances you intake. There are many different types of known detox routines.

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