Biotin is available as oral tablets, capsules, and lozenges from numerous sources under various names. Biotin content ranges from approximately 300 to 1,000 ¡g, some times higher. Biotin is also found in a host of mutlivitamin preparations.

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 is now known officially as folic acid or folate, which is preferred because it is shorter.200 The term folic acid is derived from the Latin word folium meaning "leaf" and was coined by Mitchell et al.201 in 1941 to refer to a substance isolated from spinach leaves that was an essential growth factor in Streptococcus lactis R (now classified as Enterococcus hirae). Folate crystals were isolated in 194 3202 and the structure reported in 1946.203

Natural sources of dietary folate are fruits, vegetables, beans, and peas as well as beef and chicken liver. However, since January 1998, the Federal Government204 has required folic acid fortification of all enriched cereal-grain products (flour, rice, bread, rolls, buns, pasta, corn, grits, corn meal, farina, macaroni, and noodle products), and these have now become important dietary sources of folate in the United States.205,206

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