Ascorbic acid is available as oral tablets, capsules, lozenges, crystals, and solutions from various manufacturers. It is also available as an injectable solution and as part

Figure 28.50 • Ascorbic acid cycle.

of innummerable multivitamin combinations under various names. Ascorbic acid is also available as the sodium salt in an injectable solution and as calcium ascorbate in oral tablets, granules, and powder. These two salts are also formulated into an assortment of multivitamin combinations sold under various names. Several other micronutrient salts of ascorbic acid, such as the potassium salt, are available. Ascorbyl palmitate (ascorbic acid 6 palmitate) is the C6 palmitic acid ester of ascorbic acid (see Fig. 28.51). This ester of ascorbic acid is a fat-soluble form that releases ascorbic acid in the digestive tract following hydrolysis of the ester bond. Ascorbyl palmitate has also been used in topical preparations designed to protect the skin from UV radiation under the premise that the antioxidant properties, in a manner similar to the oral use of ascorbic acid, would add to the protectant effects. However, there is evidence that its use in these preparations may actually lead to enhanced skin damage.245

ho ho Figure 28.51

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