R

Rabeprazole, 765, 766t-767t, 767-768 Rabeprazole sodium, 771 Racemization, of recombinant proteins, 132 Radanil. See Benznidazole Radiation biological effects of, 416^417 description of, 414—415 electromagnetic, 413 ionizing, 413 particulate, 413 Radiation absorbed dose, 416 Radiation dosimetry, 417 Radioactive decay law, 414 Radioactive tracers, 413, 417 Radioactivity, 413^15

decay calculations for, 414^15 Radiographic contrast, 430 Radiography contrast agents for, 430-436 description of, 430-431, 431 / digital, 430 Radioimmunoassay, 417 Radionuclide daughter, 414

decay calculations for, 414^15 parent, 414

production of, 415^16, 416/ Radiopharmaceuticals, 413^440 fluorine, 418-419 gallium, 419 indium, 419^21 iodine, 421-422 technetium, 422-429 thallium, 429-430 xenon, 430 Radiotracers. See Radioactive tracers Radio waves, 413 Raloxifene, 10, 10/, 832-834, 833/ Ramelteon, 452 Ramipril, 611-612, 611/, 612t Ranexa. See Ranolazine Ranitidine, 762t, 764, 767t

RANKL. See Receptor activator of nuclear factor-KB

ligand Ranolazine, 627 Rasagiline mesylate, 475 Rasilez. See Aliskiren Ras pathways, 401, 402/, 403 Raudixin. See Rauwolfia serpentina, powdered Rau-Sed. See Reserpine

Rauserpal. See Rauwolfia serpentina, powdered

Rauval. See Rauwolfia serpentina, powdered

Rauwolfia serpentina, powdered, 639

rDNA technology. See Recombinant DNA technology

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 386

Rebif. See Interferon beta-1a

Reboxetine, 514

Receptor activator of nuclear factor-KB ligand

(RANKL), 706, 710 Receptors. See Drug receptors S-Receptors, 780-781, 781/ K-Receptors, 781, 782/ ^-Receptors, 779-780, 779/, 783 Recombinant DNA, 121-126, 123/-125/, 123t-124t antisense technology, 152 cloning strategies, 126, 126t DNA ligases, 124 DNA manipulation, 127-128, 128/ DNA overview, 121-123, 122/

expression of cloned DNA, 127

gene therapy, 153

genomics, 150-152, 151/

new biological targets, 128-129, 129t novel drug-screening strategies, 129-131,

129/-130/ pharmaceutics of, 131-134, 133/ processing of, 131 products, 134-150

antibody production, 146-147, 147/ cytokines, 136-138, 136t, 137/ enzymes, 142-145 hormones, 134-136 in-home test kits, 150 interferons, 138-141, 138/, 139t-140t interleukins, 141-142 monoclonal antibodies, 147-149 monoclonal antibody radionuclide test kits, 149-150

therapeutic radionuclide monoclonal antibody,

149-150 tumor necrosis factor, 142 vaccines, 145-146, 146t restriction endonucleases, 124, 124/, 124t technology for, 123, 123/, 123t vector, 124-126, 125/ Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology for development of pharmaceutical proteins and peptides, 907-909, 910/ pharmaceuticals derived from, 908t-909t, 909-913 Recombivax, 145

5a-Reductase inhibitors, 852, 852/-853/ Reductive reactions, 78-86

aldehyde and ketone carbonyls, 80-83 nitro and azo compounds, 83-84 Refludan. See Lepirudin Regitine. See Phentolamine Regranex Gel. See Becaplermin Regular human insulin, recombinant, 667-668, 667/,

668t-669t, 900, 901t-902t Relafen. See Nabumetone Relative specificity, 885 Relaxation, of muscle, 618-619, 619/ Release, of virus, 333, 336 Relistor. See Methylnaltrexone Relpax. See Eletriptan Remeron. See Mirtazapine Remicade. See Infliximab Remifentanil, 787/, 788 Reminyl. See Galantamine Remoxipride, 468

Renal failure, drug metabolites and, 111 Renal hypertension, 637 Renal system drugs, 607-615

ACE inhibitor prodrugs, 610-612, 611/, 612t aldosterone antagonists, 615, 864 angiotensin antagonists, 612-614 renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, 609-610, 610/

renin inhibitors, 614-615 Renal toxicity, of acetaminophen and phenacetin,

805-806, 806/ Renin, 607

Renin-angiotensin system, 607-609, 608/-609/ Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, 609-610, 610/ Renin inhibitors, 614-615 ReoPro. See Abciximab

679/, 681 Replicons, 124

Repolarization prolongators, 631, 631t, 636-637

Repository corticotropin injection, 891, 892t

Requip. See Ropinirole hydrochloride

Rescriptor. See Delavirdine

Rescula. See Unoprostone

Reserpine, 530, 639-640, 639/

Reserpoid. See Reserpine

Resorcinol, 185, 195, 533

Restoril. See Temazepam

Restriction endonucleases, 124, 124/, 124t, 909

Retavase. See Reteplase

Reteplase, 143, 143t

Retin-A. See Tretinoin

Retinoate analogs, 919, 923, 924/, 924t

Retinoids. See Vitamin A

Retinol chemistry of, 919-920, 919/ sources of, 917, 919, 923

visual cycle and, 921-922, 921/ Retro-Michael decomposition, 360, 361/ Retroviruses, 335 Revatio. See Sildenafil citrate Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 343-346

nonnucleoside, 347-348 Reverse transcription, 335 Revex. See Nalmefene Rexinoids, 922

Rexolate. See Sodium thiosalicylate

Reye syndrome, 796

RGD receptors, 628-629

Rheumatoid arthritis, 806-807

Rheumatrex. See Methotrexate

Rhinocort. See Budesonide

Rhodis. See Ketoprofen

Ribavirin, 335, 346

Riboflavin, 938-939, 939/

Rid-A Pain compound. See Salicylamide

Ridaura. See Gold compounds

Rifabutin, 219

Rifadin. See Rifampin

Rifampicin. See Rifampin

Rifampin, 215, 218-219, 260t

Rifamycins, 218-220, 335

Rimactane. See Rifampin

Rimantadine, 336

Rimexolone, 860/, 862

Ring equivalents, 39

Ringworm, 192, 192t topical agents for, 194-196 Riomet. See Metformin Risedronate sodium, 706, 707t, 708 Risperdal. See Risperidone Risperidone, 466, 483t, 486, 486/ Ritalin. See Methylphenidate hydrochloride Ritodrine, 543 Ritonavir, 349 Rituxan. See Rituximab Rituximab, 147-148 Rivastigmine, 573, 576 Rivoglitazone, 682, 682/ Rizatriptan, 812-814, 812t, 813/ RNA, protein production, 121-122, 122/ RNA viruses, 331, 331t-332t, 335 Robaxin. See Methocarbamol Robinul. See Glycopyrrolate Rocephin. See Ceftriaxone disodium Rochagan. See Benznidazole Roentgen, 416 Rofecoxib, 798, 803

Roferon. See Interferon alfa-2a, recombinant Rolitetracycline, 306

Rondomycin. See Methacycline hydrochloride Ropinirole hydrochloride, 476-477 Ropivacaine, 729

ROS. See Reactive oxygen species Rosaniline, 189

Rosiglitazone, 662, 681-682, 682/, 684,

684/, 684t Rosuvastatin, 654 Rotatable bond count, 20 Rotavirus vaccine, 171 Rotigotine, 476-477 Roundworm infections, 224-225 Roxiam. See Remoxipride Rozerem. See Ramelteon Rubane, 248/ Rubella vaccine, 169

Rubidomycin. See Daunorubicin hydrochloride Rythmol. See Propafenone

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