Voltagegated Calcium Channels

The voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are essential in regulating Ca2+ signaling, which is associated with many important cellular events such as the release of excitatory glutamate neurotransmitters, the plasticity changes

Figure 14.1 • Binding of phenytoin to the hypothetical "inactivation gate" receptor on the voltage-gated sodium channels.

of long-term potentiation in learning and memory, and the maintenance of homeostasis of nerve cells. It has been suggested that excessive influx of Ca2+ plays a critical role in the induction and progression of epileptic seizures.22,23 There are distinct classes of VGCCs. The high-threshold L-type Ca2+ channels in the presynaptic glutaminergic receptors require strong depolarization for activation and are the primary molecular targets of gabapentin and prega-balin, both of which are effective in refractory partial seizures.22,24 On the other hand, the low-threshold T-type Ca2+ channels require only weak depolarization for activation and are the molecular targets of AEDs such as etho-suximide and zonisamide.18,25

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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