Androgens and Prostate Carcinogenesis

Results from the earlier summarized rodent experiments clearly indicate carcinogenic and strong tumor promoting properties of androgens, and the results of a limited number of epidemiological studies provide some support for the concept that androgens may have such effects in humans. The mechanisms of the carcinogenic and tumor-promoting effects of androgens on the rodent prostate are not known with certainty. The very steep relationship between testosterone dose and prostate carcinoma response in rat models suggests involvement of an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism [199]. However, other mechanisms may also be involved. For example, Ripple et al. [239] observed increased oxidative stress in androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells exposed to DHT, but it is possible that these effects were androgen receptor-mediated.

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