Possible Future Areas of Research

In this chapter we have presented research strongly suggesting an association between xenobiotics and altered development and reproduction in wildlife. Most of that research to date has focused on steroid hormone mimics and antagonists, especially estrogenic and androgenic EDCs. To begin to understand fully the possible impact of xenobiotics on wildlife and humans, we must broaden our research plans to include (1) other hormone axes and possible levels of disruption, (2) varied methods of investigation and analysis, (3) an emphasis on embryonic/pre-adult life stages, and (4) levels of biological organization beyond the organism.

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