Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates have increased in the US over the few decades preceding the frequent use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for early detection . Incidence rates have increased substantially since the mid-1980s because of use of PSA screening for early detection ,but rates have recently begun to decline . In 1999,179,300 new cases of prostate cancer are expected and 37,000 deaths from this malignancy . The epidemiology of prostatic cancer has been reviewed in depth elsewhere [10,13-17]. The most important potential risk factors are summarized below, with special attention to those possibly related to hormonal factors.
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