Xenobiotics

Fig. 4. A model of xenobiotic action in an organism. Traditionally, toxicology was concerned with safeguarding human health and measured genotoxic effects of xenobiotics, including birth defects, cancer, and death. More recently, certain xenobiotics have been identified as mimics and antagonists of steroid hormones, especially estrogens. These xenobiotics are known to alter the normal development and reproduction of wildlife by modifying endocrine system function. Crosstalk between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems integrate these systems and enable maintenance of homeostasis in a dynamic environment. Future research should expand to include examination of possible xenobiotic modification of these signaling systems

Fig. 4. A model of xenobiotic action in an organism. Traditionally, toxicology was concerned with safeguarding human health and measured genotoxic effects of xenobiotics, including birth defects, cancer, and death. More recently, certain xenobiotics have been identified as mimics and antagonists of steroid hormones, especially estrogens. These xenobiotics are known to alter the normal development and reproduction of wildlife by modifying endocrine system function. Crosstalk between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems integrate these systems and enable maintenance of homeostasis in a dynamic environment. Future research should expand to include examination of possible xenobiotic modification of these signaling systems

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