The term "behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia'' (BPSD) describes the spectrum of noncognitive manifestations of dementia that include seven phenomenological categories: paranoid and delusional ideation, hallucinations, activity disturbances, verbal and physical aggression, diurnal (sleep) rhythm disturbances, affective disturbances, and anxieties and phobias. BPSD are common, present a major risk factor for caregiver burden, are associated with a worse prognosis, and add significantly to the direct and indirect costs of care.


David S. Middlemas1, David B. Bylund2 department of Pharmacology, Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, A. T. Still University of Health Sciences, Kirksville, MO, USA 2Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA


Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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