Definition

Pharmacogenomics can be defined as the study of variations of DNA and RNA characteristics as related to drug response. However, there is no consensus about the semantic differences between pharmacogenetics and phar-macogenomics, and these two terms tend to be used interchangeably. The history of usage generally parallels the development of the new field of genomics from the old field of genetics. The older term "pharmacogenetics" is now generally thought of as the limited study of single or few genes and their effects on interindividual differences in drug responses while the newer term "pharma-cogenomics'' is thought to refer to the application of genomic technologies to the study of drug discovery, pharmacological function, disposition, and therapeutic response.

principals, assuming a linear relationship between blood and tissue (brain) exposure. Understanding the pharma-cokinetic principles of a drug often explains the manner of its use and aids the clinician in a number of ways: in anticipating the optimal dosage regime; in predicting what may happen if the dosage regime is not followed; in responding to over dosing and; to monitor the consequences of harmful or dependent use.

Pharmacokinetic parameters describe how the body affects a specific drug after administration and explains how the variables such as the site of administration and the dose and dosage form in which the drug is administered can alter this response. Pharmacokinetic analysis is performed by noncompartmental (model-independent) or compartmental methods. Noncompartmental methods estimate the exposure to a drug by evaluating the ► Area Under the curve (► AUC) of a concentration-time graph. Compartmental methods estimate the concentration-time graph using kinetic modeling. Compartment-free methods are often more versatile in that they do not assume any specific compartmental model and produce more accurate results.

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Anxiety and Depression 101

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