While drug effects are typically measured as a reduction or an abolition of the target behavior in comparison with its presence in drug nontreated controls, pharmacology of LI has taken a different path from its very inception, focusing on both the disruption and the induction of the phenomenon. The latter effect, termed interchangeably LI potentiation, enhancement, or persistence, is indexed by comparison with the absence of LI in drug nontreated controls. Thus, psychoactive drugs can produce two poles of LI abnormality, namely, disrupted LI under conditions that lead to LI in normal rats and abnormally persistent LI under conditions that disrupt LI in normal rats (Fig. 2). Both disruption and persistence of LI can stem from drug action in the pre-exposure stage or in the conditioning stage. In addition to unraveling the psychological mechanism by which a given drug affects LI (alterations in the acquisition or the expression of inattentional response), stage-specific action allows for a refined discrimination between the effects of different drugs on LI.
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