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5 min with no effects on resting firing rate. ► Somatostatin exerts a potent excitatory effect on hippocampal neurons. ► Cholecystokinin (CCK) and ► neurotensin are also frequently excitatory while angiotensin has excitant properties, which appear to be restricted to the subfornical organ and related structures. However, it is important to point out that peptides present special problems for micro-iontophoresis. Larger molecules tend to be adsorbed on to charged surfaces, which include the internal wall of a micropipette tip. Some peptides may also undergo denatur-ation or degradation during iontophoretic experiments. This problem may be exacerbated if very high currents are applied for long periods oftime through high resistance tips, in that any change of local temperature may have a major impact on the stability of a peptide.

some as a "classical" neurophysiology approach to the study of central nervous system, it is likely that it will still contribute substantially to the progress of neuroscience.

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Anxiety and Depression 101

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