Most unpleasant imaginable
Labeled magnitude Neutral
Most pleasant imaginable
Emotion and Mood. Fig. 1. Example of bipolar scales of pleasantness in a visual analog, likert, and labeled magnitude format.
of the existing measures is consistent when moving from an LS or VAS format to an LMS format.
A final consideration in self-report data relates to potential response artifacts that lead an individual to respond in a manner that is not representative of their true level of current mood. Response biases, including acquiescence biases, nay-saying biases, carelessness, and socially desirable response sets, all may contribute to error in the measurement of mood. However, such response artifacts do not invalidate mood ratings. They merely make it less accurate. Moreover, in some cases, it is possible to correct response artifacts or identify individuals with invalid data by specifically assessing for response biases. In summary, there continue to be challenges inherent to measures of emotion and mood, but through careful research design these measures can substantially contribute to psychopharmacological research.
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