References

Adell A, Artigas F (1991) Differential effects of clomipramine given locally or systemically on extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine in raphe nuclei and frontal cortex. An in vivo brain microdialysis study. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 343:237-244 Adell A, Artigas F (1998) In vivo Brain microdialysis: principles and applications. In: Boulton AA, Baker GB, Bateson AN (eds) In vivo neuromethods. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 1-33 Artigas F, Adell A (2007) The use of brain microdialysis in antidepressant drug research. In: Westerink BHC, Cremers TIFH (eds) Handbook of microdialysis: methods, applications and clinical aspects. Elsevier/ Academic, Amsterdam, pp 527-543 Augustine GJ, Chanton MP, Smith SJ (1987) Calcium action in synaptic transmitter release. Ann Rev Neurosci 10:633-693 Benveniste H, Huttemeier PC (1990) Microdialysis-theory and application. Progr Neurobiol 35:195-215 Franklin KBJ, Paxinos G (1997) The mouse brain in stereotaxic coordinates. Academic, San Diego Justice JB Jr (1993) Quantitative microdialysis of neurotransmitters.

J Neurosci Meth 48:263-276 Paxinos G, Watson C (2005) The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates.

Elsevier/Academic, Amsterdam Santiago M, Rollema H, De Vries JB, Westerink BHC (1991) Acute effects of intranigral application of MPP+ on nigral and bilateral striatal

Microdialysis. Table 1. Advantages and limitations of the microdialysis technique.

Easy manufacture of probes

No enzymatic degradation of transmitters in samples

Coupling to chemical methods of analysis (HPLC, mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, etc.)

Possibility of local administration of drugs Possibility of concurrent determination of drugs after systemic administration Dual probe approaches Possibility of concurrent recording of electrical activity

Concurrent study of behavior in freely-moving animals

Limitations

Invasive procedure: causes neuronal death and reactive gliosis

Limited spatial resolution

Limited temporal resolution

Analytical difficulties with some transmitters

Low membrane recoveries with high molecular weight compounds

release of dopamine simultaneously recorded by microdialysis. Brain

Res 538:226-230

Ungerstedt U (1984) Measurement of neurotransmitter release by intra-cranial dialysis. In: Marsden CA (ed) Measurement of neurotrans-mitter release in vivo. Wiley, Chichester, pp 81-105

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