Verbal and Non-Verbal Learning in Humans. Fig. 2. Percentage of ► transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked thumb movements falling in the training target zone (TTZ) in young (a) and elderly (b) healthy volunteers. In young subjects (a), training under placebo led to a progressive increase in TMS-evoked thumb movements falling in the TTZ that became significant after 30 min (A, 30 min [post], white bar). L-Dopa + training accelerated the development of this form of plasticity, which became significant after only 10 min of training (A, 10 min, black bar). In elderly subjects (b), consistent with previous results, training under placebo did not induce changes in TMS-evoked thumb movements falling in the TTZ (B, 30 min [post], white bar). L-Dopa + training substantially enhanced the response to motor training, which became significant after 30 min (B, 30 min [post], black bar), and that was comparable in magnitude with that identified in younger subjects under placebo and L-dopa (A, 30 min [post], black and white bars). Note that this effect was evident in five of the seven elderly subjects tested (inset). To illustrate the percentage change in the training + L-dopa versus the training + placebo condition, we summarize the mean change for each subject in each condition in the above insets (A, young; B, elderly). *p < 0.05. (From Floel et al. 2005a.)
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