Trait Independence Definition

Traits that are independent do not correlate, which indicates that you cannot predict an individual's level on trait A from knowledge of the individual's level on trait B. It is assumed that independent traits have unrelated genetic and neurobiological foundations; however, the phenotyp-ic manifestations of the traits may interact to alter the magnitude of either or both traits.

Tramadol Definition

Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic used to treat mild to moderately severe pain. It is an opiate agonist and analog of ► codeine. Notably, tramadol acts quite selectively at the m-opioid receptor whereas most other opiate analgesics do not share this property. However, it also acts outside the opioid system, enhancing of

► serotonin and ► norepinephrine neurotransmission.

► Serotonin syndrome may occur in patients taking combinations of tramadol and other agents that increase serotonin activity. The relative degree of contribution of each mechanism toward pain control is not fully understood. It is possible that tramadol may have future uses in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and phobias. In contrast to typical opioids, tramadol may enhance immune function. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, sweating, constipation, and seizure. Tramadol can lead to a physical dependence such that rapid cessation leads to a severe ► withdrawal syndrome that includes tremors, nervousness, insomnia, and flu-like symptoms.

Cross-References

► Analgesics

► Opioid Dependence and Its Treatment

► Physical Dependence

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Anxiety and Depression 101

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