W

► Elevated Plus Maze

► Liquid diet for Administering Alcohol

► Noradrenaline

► Physical Dependence

References

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Espejo EF, Stinus L, Cador M, Mir D (1994) Effects of morphine and naloxone on behaviour in the hot plate test: an ethopharmacological study in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 113(3-4):500-510

Frenois F, Le Moine C, Cador M (2005) The motivational component of withdrawal in opiate addiction: role of associative learning and aversive memory in opiate addiction from a behavioral, anatomical and functional perspective. Rev Neurosci 16(3):255-276

Gellert VF, Holtzman SG (1978) Development and maintenance of morphine tolerance and dependence in the rat by scheduled access to morphine drinking solutions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 205:536-546

Jaffe JH (1990) Drug addiction and drug abuse. Pergamon Press, New York

Kenny PJ, Markou A (2001) Neurobiology of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 70(4):531-549 Koob GF (2008) A role for brain stress systems in addiction. Neuron 59:11-34

Koob GF, Stinus L, Le Moal M, Bloom FE (1989) Opponent process theory of motivation: neurobiological evidence from studies of opiate dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 13(2-3):135-140 (Review) Koob GF, Maldonado R, Stinus L (1992) Neural substrates of opiate withdrawal. Trends Neurosci 15(5):186-191 (Review) Malin DH, Lake JR, Newlin-Maultsby P, Roberts LK, Lanier JG, Carter VA, Cunningham JS, Wilson OB (1992) Rodent model of nicotine abstinence syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 43(3):779-784 Tanda G, Goldberg SR (2003) Cannabinoids: reward, dependence, and underlying neurochemical mechanisms-a review of recent preclini-cal data. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 169(2):115-134 (Review)

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