Rapid advances in the identification of the human genome and in the methodology for genetic manipulation have combined to open a window into the brain. We are accumulating knowledge of human gene mutations and their connection to neurological and psychiatric diseases at a rapid pace. As genes are being identified, the proteins for which they code are also becoming known. With this knowledge, the pathogenic mechanism of some diseases is becoming apparent. Understanding these maladies at the molecular level is likely to lead to new methods of diagnosis and novel approaches to therapy.

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