This chapter reviews the basic framework of the anatomical distribution of the major neurochemical systems in the primate brain, including the anatomical determinants of where neurotransmitters are released and where they produce their effects. These organizational schema provide important constraints on the actions of the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. In addition, the consequences of the cellular actions and of pharmacological manipulations of their synthesis, release, reuptake, and receptor binding depend on the rich and diverse interplay across these neurochemical systems. Clearly, a major challenge for the future involves the elucidation of these interactions and the characterization of how these interactions are disturbed in psychiatric disorders. Such information is critical for identification and validation of potential molecular targets for the rational development of new pharmacotherapies for psychiatric illnesses.

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