Medical illness is often associated with a state of functional thyroid deficiency known as euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) (Papanicolaou 2000). In its early stages, ESS is characterized by normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels, but by reduced levels of triiodothyronine (T3), which is the more biologically active form of thyroid hormone. In later stages of ESS, T4 levels are also decreased. Evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines promote this condition via direct effects on the thyroid gland, as well as by inhibition of enzymes responsible for peripheral conversion of T4 to T3, especially in the liver (Papanicolaou 2000). It is well known that decreased thyroid functioning is associated with the development of symptoms of depression, and functional abnormalities of the thyroid axis are observed in many patients with major depression who do not have clinically obvious thyroid disease (Musselman and Nemeroff 1996).
Was this article helpful?
Stop Nicotine Addiction Is Not Easy, But You Can Do It. Discover How To Have The Best Chance Of Quitting Nicotine And Dramatically Improve Your Quality Of Your Life Today. Finally You Can Fully Equip Yourself With These Must know Blue Print To Stop Nicotine Addiction And Live An Exciting Life You Deserve!