Mediating Pathways

Underlying the ability of the CNS to affect the immune system is a host of connections between autonomic and neuroendocrine pathways and immune system elements. Immune cells are able to directly respond to brain outflow pathways via receptors for small-molecule neurotransmitters, adrenal and gonadal steroids, hypothalamic-releasing factors, and other neuropeptides (Raison et al.

2002). Specific receptor densities vary among immune cell types, and these variations correlate with cell sensitivity to a given ligand.

Nicotine Support Superstar

Nicotine Support Superstar

Stop Nicotine Addiction Is Not Easy, But You Can Do It. Discover How To Have The Best Chance Of Quitting Nicotine And Dramatically Improve Your Quality Of Your Life Today. Finally You Can Fully Equip Yourself With These Must know Blue Print To Stop Nicotine Addiction And Live An Exciting Life You Deserve!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment