The posttranslational modifications described above occur after translation is initiated. They may include removal of part of the translated sequence or the covalent addition of one or more chemical groups that are required for protein activity. Some of these modifications, such as glycosylation or prenylation, represent an obligatory step in the synthesis of the "finished" protein product. In addition, many proteins may be activated or inactivated by the covalent attachment of a variety of chemical groups. Phosphorylation, glycosylation, hydroxylation, and prenylation are common types of covalent alterations in posttranslational modifications. A number of different enzymes coordinate these processes, and they represent a major portion of the events of cellular signaling.
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