Psychoneuroendocrinology Introduction

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An association between hormones and psychiatric disorders has been long recognized, but it is only in the past few decades that we have reached an understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. A full account of the myriad ways in which the various endocrine systems influence neurobehavioral function would be beyond the scope of a single chapter. We will therefore focus on examples of promising research directions in this area: namely, how the stress and reproductive hormone axes contribute to the pathoetiology of psychiatric conditions, in particular mood and anxiety disorders.

Major depression is considered to be a maladaptive, exaggerated response to stress, and although it is accompanied by abnormalities in multiple endocrine systems, it is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that is the main component of the physiological stress response that plays the key role. Stressful life events, particularly those related to loss, have a strong causal relationship with depressive episodes. However, not all people who experience such events develop depression, and an individual's vulnerability to depression depends on the interaction of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. In addition to the role of the HPA axis in depression, there is growing evidence of HPA axis abnormalities in anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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