Tamya Kolachana

Abkevich V, Camp NJ, Hensel CH, et al: Predisposition locus for major depression at chromosome 12q22-12q23.2. Am J Hum Genet 73:1271-1281, 2003 [PubMed]

Altshuler D, Pollara VJ, Cowles CR, et al: An SNP map of the human genome generated by reduced representation shotgun sequencing. Nature 407:513-516, 2000 [PubMed]

Altshuler D, Daly MJ, Lander ES: Genetic mapping in human disease. Science 322:881-888, 2008 [PubMed]

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000

Angst J: A clinical analysis of the effects of Tofranil in depression: longitudinal and follow-up studies. Treatment of blood relations. Psychopharmacologia 2:381-407, 1961 [PubMed]

Badner JA, Gershon ES: Meta-analysis of whole-genome linkage scans of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 7:405-411, 2002 [PubMed] Bailey A, Le Couteur A, Gottesman I, et al: Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study. Psychol Med 25:63-77, 1995 [PubMed] Barrett JC, Cardon LR: Evaluating coverage of genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 38:659-662, 2006 [PubMed]

Barrett JC, Fry B, Maller J, et al: Haploview: analysis and visualization of LD and haplotype maps. Bioinformatics 21:263-265, 2005 [PubMed]

Barrett TB, Hauger RL, Kennedy JL, et al: Evidence that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the G protein receptor kinase 3 gene is associated with bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 8:546-557, 2003 [PubMed]

Baum AE, Akula N, Cabanero M, et al: A genome-wide association study implicates diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) and several other genes in the etiology of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 13:197-207, 2008a

Baum AE, Hamshere M, Green E, et al: Meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of bipolar disorder reveals important points of agreement. Mol Psychiatry 13:466-467, 2008b

Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y: Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Methodological) 57:289-300, 1995

Bertilsson L, Dahl ML, Dalen P, et al: Molecular genetics of CYP2D6: clinical relevance with focus on psychotropic drugs. Br J Clin Pharmacol 53:111-122, 2002 [PubMed]

Binder EB, Bradley RG, Liu W, et al: Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults. JAMA 299:1-15, 2008

Blackwood D, Muir W: Molecular genetics and the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. Ann Med 33:242-247, 2001 [PubMed]

Blackwood DH, Fordyce A, Walker MT, et al: Schizophrenia and affective disorders—cosegregation with a translocation at chromosome 1q42 that directly disrupts brain-expressed genes: clinical and P300 findings in a family. Am J Hum Genet 69:428-433, 2001 [PubMed]

Bleuler M: Psychiatry of cerebral diseases. BMJ 2:1233-1238, 1951 [PubMed]

Bradley RG, Binder EB, Epstein MP, et al: Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:190-200, 2008 [PubMed]

Bray NJ, Buckland PR, Williams NM, et al: A haplotype implicated in schizophrenia susceptibility is associated with reduced COMT expression in human brain. Am J Hum Genet 73:152-161, 2003 [PubMed]

Brunner HG, Nelen M, Breakefield XO, et al: Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262:578-580, 1993 [PubMed]

Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Wade TD, et al: Twin studies of eating disorders: a review. Int J Eat Disord 27:1-20, 2000 [PubMed]

Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Tozzi F, et al: Prevalence, heritability, and prospective risk factors for anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:305-312, 2006 [PubMed]

Busjahn A: Twin registers across the globe: what's out there in 2002? Twin Res 5:v-vi, 2002

Cadoret RJ: Adoption studies: historical and methodological critique. Psychiatr Dev 4:45-64, 1986 [PubMed]

Cadoret RJ, Yates WR, Troughton E, et al: Adoption study demonstrating two genetic pathways to drug abuse. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:42-52, 1995a

Cadoret RJ, Yates WR, Troughton E, et al: Genetic-environmental interaction in the genesis of aggressivity and conduct disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:916-924, 1995b

Cardon LR, Abecasis GR: Using haplotype blocks to map human complex trait loci. Trends Genet 19:135-140, 2003 [PubMed]

Caspi A, Moffitt TE: Gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: joining forces with neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:583-590, 2006 [PubMed]

Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, et al: Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297:851-854, 2002 [PubMed]

Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, et al: Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 301:386-389, 2003 [PubMed]

Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Cannon M, et al: Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene x environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry 57:1117-1127, 2005 [PubMed]

Chanock SJ, Manolio T, Boehnke M, et al: Replicating genotype-phenotype associations. Nature 447:655-660, 2007 [PubMed] Churchill GA, Doerge RW: Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics 138:963-971, 1994 [PubMed]

Conrad DF, Jakobsson M, Coop G, et al: A worldwide survey of haplotype variation and linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nat Genet 38:1251-1260, 2006 [PubMed]

Cook EH Jr: Genetics of autism. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 10:333-350, 2001 [PubMed]

Cook EH Jr, Scherer SW: Copy-number variations associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. Nature 455:919-923, 2008 [PubMed]

Craddock N, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ: Genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? Implications for psychiatric nosology. Schizophr Bull 32:9-16, 2006 [PubMed]

Craddock N, Jones L, Jones IR, et al: Strong genetic evidence for a selective influence of GABA(A) receptors on a component of the bipolar disorder phenotype. Mol Psychiatry 2008 Jul 1 [Epub ahead of print]

Dalen P, Dahl ML, Ruiz ML, et al: 10-Hydroxylation of nortriptyline in white persons with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13 functional CYP2D6 genes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 63:444-452, 1998 [PubMed]

Daly MJ, Rioux JD, Schaffner SF, et al: High-resolution haplotype structure in the human genome. Nat Genet 29:229-232, 2001 [PubMed]

de Bakker PI, Burtt NP, Graham RR, et al: Transferability of tag SNPs in genetic association studies in multiple populations. Nat Genet 38:1298-1303, 2006

Devlin B, Roeder K: Genomic control for association studies. Biometrics 55:997-1004, 1999 [PubMed]

Dubertret C, Gorwood P, Ades J, et al: Meta-analysis of DRD3 gene and schizophrenia: ethnic heterogeneity and significant association in Caucasians. Am J Med Genet 81:318-322, 1998 [PubMed]

Dudbridge F, Gusnanto A: Estimation of significance thresholds for genomewide association scans. Genet Epidemiol 32:227-234, 2008 [PubMed]

Dudbridge F, Koeleman BP: Efficient computation of significance levels for multiple associations in large studies of correlated data, including genomewide association studies. Am J Hum Genet 75:424-435, 2004 [PubMed]

Duman RS, Newton SS: Epigenetic marking and neuronal plasticity. Biol Psychiatry 62:1-3, 2007 [PubMed]

Egan MF, Goldberg TE, Kolachana BS, et al: Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6917-6922, 2001 [PubMed]

ENCODE Project Consortium: Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project. Nature 447:799-816, 2007

Fan JB, Zhang CS, Gu NF, et al: Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene Val/Met functional polymorphism and risk of schizophrenia: a large-scale association study plus meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry 57:139-144, 2005 [PubMed]

Ferreira MA, O'Donovan MC, Meng YA, et al: Collaborative genome-wide association analysis supports a role for ANK3 and CACNA1C in bipolar disorder. Nat Genet 2008 Aug 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Folstein SE, Rosen-Sheidley B: Genetics of autism: complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder. Nat Rev Genet 2:943-955, 2001 [PubMed]

Franchini L, Serretti A, Gasperini M, et al: Familial concordance of fluvoxamine response as a tool for differentiating mood disorder pedigrees. J Psychiatr Res 32:255-259, 1998 [PubMed]

Freeman WM, Hemby SE: Proteomics for protein expression profiling in neuroscience. Neurochem Res 29:1065-1081, 2004 [PubMed]

Frudakis T, Thomas M, Gaskin Z, et al: Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation. Genetics 165:2071-2083, 2003 [PubMed]

Gabriel SB, Schaffner SF, Nguyen H, et al: The structure of haplotype blocks in the human genome. Science 296:2225-2229, 2002 [PubMed]

Gelernter J, Cubells JF, Kidd JR, et al: Population studies of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter protein gene. Am J Med Genet 88:61-66, 1999 [PubMed]

Gill M, Vallada H, Collier D, et al: A combined analysis of D22S278 marker alleles in affected sib-pairs: support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at chromosome 22q12. Schizophrenia Collaborative Linkage Group (Chromosome 22). Am J Med Genet 67:40-45, 1996 [PubMed]

Ginsberg SD, Elarova I, Ruben M, et al: Single-cell gene expression analysis: implications for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Neurochem Res 29:1053-1064, 2004 [PubMed]

Goldberg TE, Egan MF, Gscheidle T, et al: Executive subprocesses in working memory: relationship to catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:889-896, 2003 [PubMed]

Gottesman II, Gould TD: The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am J Psychiatry 160:636-645, 2003 [Full Text] [PubMed]

Greenwood TA, Kelsoe JR: Promoter and intronic variants affect the transcriptional regulation of the human dopamine transporter gene. Genomics 82:511-520, 2003 [PubMed]

Hamer D, Sirota L: Beware the chopsticks gene. Mol Psychiatry 5:11-13, 2000 [PubMed]

Hasler G, Drevets WC, Manji HK, et al: Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1765-1781, 2004 [PubMed] Hawley ME, Kidd KK: HAPLO: a program using the EM algorithm to estimate the frequencies of multi-site haplotypes. J Hered 86:409-411, 1995 [PubMed] Heils A, Teufel A, Petri S, et al: Allelic variation of human serotonin transporter gene expression. J Neurochem 66:2621-2624, 1996 [PubMed]

Helgason A, Nicholson G, Stefansson K, et al: A reassessment of genetic diversity in Icelanders: strong evidence from multiple loci for relative homogeneity caused by genetic drift. Ann Hum Genet 67:281-297, 2003 [PubMed]

Hettema JM, Neale MC, Kendler KS: A review and meta-analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry 158:1568-1578, 2001 [Full Text] [PubMed]

Hirschhorn JN, Daly MJ: Genome-wide association studies for common diseases and complex traits. Nat Rev Genet 6:95-108, 2005 [PubMed]

Horvath S, Xu X, Laird NM: The family based association test method: strategies for studying general genotype-phenotype associations. Eur J Hum Genet 9:301-306, 2001 [PubMed]

Hu XZ, Lipsky RH, Zhu G, et al: Serotonin transporter promoter gain-of-function genotypes are linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Hum Genet 78:815-826, 2006 [PubMed]

Inoue-Murayama M, Adachi S, Mishima N, et al: Variation of variable number of tandem repeat sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of primate dopamine transporter genes that affects reporter gene expression. Neurosci Lett 334:206-210, 2002 [PubMed]

International HapMap Consortium: The International HapMap Project. Nature 426:789-796, 2003

International Schizophrenia Consortium: Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications increase risk of schizophrenia. Nature 455:237-241, 2008

Johansson C, Jansson M, Linner L, et al: Genetics of affective disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 11:385-394, 2001 [PubMed]

Johnson GC, Esposito L, Barratt BJ, et al: Haplotype tagging for the identification of common disease genes. Nat Genet 29:233-237, 2001 [PubMed]

Jonsson EG, Flyckt L, Burgert E, et al: Dopamine D3 receptor gene Ser9Gly variant and schizophrenia: association study and meta-analysis. Psychiatr Genet 13:1-12,

2003 [PubMed]

Jonsson EG, Kaiser R, Brockmoller J, et al: Meta-analysis of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) Ser9Gly variant and schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet 14:9-12,

2004 [PubMed]

Joober R, Gauthier J, Lal S, et al: Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val-108/158-Met gene variants associated with performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:662-663, 2002 [PubMed]

Karayiorgou M, Gogos JA: The molecular genetics of the 22q11-associated schizophrenia. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 132:95-104, 2004 [PubMed]

Karayiorgou M, Morris MA, Morrow B, et al: Schizophrenia susceptibility associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 22q11. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:7612-7616, 1995 [PubMed]

Kaufman J, Yang BZ, Douglas-Palumberi H, et al: Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17316-17321, 2004 [PubMed]

Kawashima M, Tamiya G, Oka A, et al: Genomewide association analysis of human narcolepsy and a new resistance gene. Am J Hum Genet 79:252-263, 2006 [PubMed]

Kelsoe JR, Spence MA, Loetscher E, et al: A genome survey indicates a possible susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder on chromosome 22. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:585-590, 2001 [PubMed]

Kendler KS: Twin studies of psychiatric illness. Current status and future directions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:905-915, 1993 [PubMed] Kendler KS: Genetic epidemiology in psychiatry. Taking both genes and environment seriously. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:895-899, 1995 [PubMed] Kendler KS: Twin studies of psychiatric illness: an update. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:1005-1014, 2001 [PubMed]

Kendler KS: "A gene for...": the nature of gene action in psychiatric disorders. Am J Psychiatry 162:1243-1252, 2005 [Full Text] [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Gardner CO Jr: Twin studies of adult psychiatric and substance dependence disorders: are they biased by differences in the environmental experiences of monozygotic and dizygotic twins in childhood and adolescence? Psychol Med 28:625-633, 1998 [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Greenspan RJ: The nature of genetic influences on behavior: lessons from "simpler" organisms. Am J Psychiatry 163:1683-1694, 2006 [Full Text] [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Prescott CA: A population-based twin study of lifetime major depression in men and women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:39-44, 1999 [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Walsh D: Gender and schizophrenia. Results of an epidemiologically based family study. Br J Psychiatry 167:184-192, 1995 [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, et al: The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women. The interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:273-281, 1992 [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Kessler RC, Walters EE, et al: Stressful life events, genetic liability, and onset of an episode of major depression in women. Am J Psychiatry 152:833-842, 1995a

Kendler KS, Pedersen NL, Neale MC, et al: A pilot Swedish twin study of affective illness including hospital- and population-ascertained subsamples: results of model fitting. Behav Genet 25:217-232, 1995b

Kendler KS, Gardner CO, Neale MC, et al: Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? Psychol Med 31:605-616, 2001a

Kendler KS, Myers J, Prescott CA, et al: The genetic epidemiology of irrational fears and phobias in men. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:257-265, 2001b

Kendler KS, Jacobson KC, Myers J, et al: Sex differences in genetic and environmental risk factors for irrational fears and phobias. Psychol Med 32:209-217, 2002 [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Kuhn JW, Vittum J, et al: The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression: a replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:529-535, 2005 [PubMed]

Kendler KS, Gatz M, Gardner CO, et al: A Swedish national twin study of lifetime major depression. Am J Psychiatry 163:109-114, 2006 [Full Text] [PubMed] Kim S, Misra A: SNP genotyping: technologies and biomedical applications. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 9:289-320, 2007 [PubMed]

Kirchheiner J, Brosen K, Dahl ML, et al: CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotype-based dose recommendations for antidepressants: a first step towards subpopulation-specific dosages. Acta Psychiatr Scand 104:173-192, 2001 [PubMed]

Kirchheiner J, Nickchen K, Bauer M, et al: Pharmacogenetics of antidepressants and antipsychotics: the contribution of allelic variations to the phenotype of drug response. Mol Psychiatry 9:442-473, 2004 [PubMed]

Kirov G, Zaharieva I, Georgieva L, et al: A genome-wide association study in 574 schizophrenia trios using DNA pooling. Mol Psychiatry 2008 Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Knapp M, Seuchter SA, Baur MP: The haplotype-relative-risk (HRR) method for analysis of association in nuclear families. Am J Hum Genet 52:1085-1093, 1993 [PubMed]

Kwok PY: High-throughput genotyping assay approaches. Pharmacogenomics 1:95-100, 2000 [PubMed]

Lachman HM, Papolos DF, Saito T, et al: Human catechol-O-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: description of a functional polymorphism and its potential application to neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacogenetics 6:243-250, 1996 [PubMed]

Lachman HM, Kelsoe JR, Remick RA, et al: Linkage studies suggest a possible locus for bipolar disorder near the velo-cardio-facial syndrome region on chromosome 22. Am J Med Genet 74:121-128, 1997 [PubMed]

Lander ES, Schork NJ: Genetic dissection of complex traits. Science 265:2037-2048, 1994 [PubMed]

Lander ES, Linton LM, Birren B, et al: Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409:860-921, 2001 [PubMed]

Lencz T, Morgan TV, Athanasiou M, et al: Converging evidence for a pseudoautosomal cytokine receptor gene locus in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 12:572-580, 2007 [PubMed]

Lesch KP, Bengel D, Heils A, et al: Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science 274:1527-1531, 1996 [PubMed]

Levinson DF, Levinson MD, Segurado R, et al: Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part I: methods and power analysis. Am J Hum

Genet 73:17-33, 2003 [PubMed]

Lewis CM, Levinson DF, Wise LH, et al: Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part II: schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet 73:34-48, 2003 [PubMed]

Li MD: The genetics of smoking related behavior: a brief review. Am J Med Sci 326:168-173, 2003 [PubMed]

Long JC, Williams RC, Urbanek M: An E-M algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 56:799-810, 1995 [PubMed]

Lotta T, Vidgren J, Tilgmann C, et al: Kinetics of human soluble and membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase: a revised mechanism and description of the thermolabile variant of the enzyme. Biochemistry 34:4202-4210, 1995 [PubMed]

Marshall CR, Noor A, Vincent JB, et al: Structural variation of chromosomes in autism spectrum disorder. Am J Hum Genet 82:477-488, 2008 [PubMed]

Martin CL, Ledbetter DH: Autism and cytogenetic abnormalities: solving autism one chromosome at a time. Curr Psychiatry Rep 9:141-147, 2007 [PubMed]

Martinez D, Gelernter J, Abi-Dargham A, et al: The variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene is not associated with significant change in dopamine transporter phenotype in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 24:553-560, 2001 [PubMed]

Mattay VS, Goldberg TE, Fera F, et al: Catechol O-methyltransferase val158-met genotype and individual variation in the brain response to amphetamine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6186-6191, 2003 [PubMed]

McGuffin P, Rijsdijk F, Andrew M, et al: The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:497-502, 2003 [PubMed]

McMahon FJ, Buervenich S, Charney D, et al: Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of antidepressant treatment. Am J Hum Genet 78:804-814, 2006 [PubMed]

Mill J, Asherson P, Browes C, et al: Expression of the dopamine transporter gene is regulated by the 3' UTR VNTR: evidence from brain and lymphocytes using quantitative RT-PCR. Am J Med Genet 114:975-979, 2002 [PubMed]

Mill J, Asherson P, Craig I, et al: Transient expression analysis of allelic variants of a VNTR in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). BMC Genet 6:3, 2005 [PubMed]

Millar JK, Wilson-Annan JC, Anderson S, et al: Disruption of two novel genes by a translocation co-segregating with schizophrenia. Hum Mol Genet 9:1415-1423,

2000 [PubMed]

Millar JK, Christie S, Anderson S, et al: Genomic structure and localisation within a linkage hotspot of Disrupted In Schizophrenia 1, a gene disrupted by a translocation segregating with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 6:173-178, 2001 [PubMed]

Mirnics K, Levitt P, Lewis DA: Critical appraisal of DNA microarrays in psychiatric genomics. Biol Psychiatry 60:163-176, 2006 [PubMed]

Montana G, Pritchard JK: Statistical tests for admixture mapping with case-control and cases-only data. Am J Hum Genet 75:771-789, 2004 [PubMed]

Moskvina V, Craddock N, Holmans P, et al: Gene-wide analyses of genome-wide association data sets: evidence for multiple common risk alleles for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for overlap in genetic risk. Mol Psychiatry 2008 Dec 9 [Epub ahead of print]

Nadeau JH, Lee C: Genetics: copies count. Nature 439:798-799, 2006 [PubMed]

Nakamura M, Ueno S, Sano A, et al: The human serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) shows ten novel allelic variants. Mol Psychiatry 5:32-38, 2000 [PubMed]

Need AC, Goldstein DB: Genome-wide tagging for everyone. Nat Genet 38:1227-1228, 2006 [PubMed]

Newton SS, Duman RS: Chromatin remodeling: a novel mechanism of psychotropic drug action. Mol Pharmacol 70:440-443, 2006 [PubMed]

Nicholls RD, Knepper JL: Genome organization, function, and imprinting in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2:153-175, 2001 [PubMed]

Niculescu AB 3rd, Segal DS, Kuczenski R, et al: Identifying a series of candidate genes for mania and psychosis: a convergent functional genomics approach. Physiol Genomics 4:83-91, 2000 [PubMed]

Nyholt DR: A simple correction for multiple testing for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with each other. Am J Hum Genet 74:765-769, 2004 [PubMed]

O'Donovan MC, Craddock N, Norton N, et al: Identification of loci associated with schizophrenia by genome-wide association and follow-up. Nat Genet 2008 Jul 30 [Epub ahead of print]

O'Reilly RL, Bogue L, Singh SM: Pharmacogenetic response to antidepressants in a multicase family with affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry 36:467-471, 1994 [PubMed]

Pare CM, Rees L, Sainsbury MJ: Differentiation of two genetically specific types of depression by the response to anti-depressants. Lancet 2(7270):1340-1343, 1962 [PubMed]

Parra EJ, Marcini A, Akey J, et al: Estimating African American admixture proportions by use of population-specific alleles. Am J Hum Genet 63:1839-1851, 1998 [PubMed]

Parra EJ, Kittles RA, Argyropoulos G, et al: Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina. Am J Phys Anthropol 114:18-29, 2001 [PubMed]

Parsey RV, Hastings RS, Oquendo MA, et al: Effect of a triallelic functional polymorphism of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region on expression of serotonin transporter in the human brain. Am J Psychiatry 163:48-51, 2006 [Full Text] [PubMed]

Patil N, Berno AJ, Hinds DA, et al: Blocks of limited haplotype diversity revealed by high-resolution scanning of human chromosome 21. Science 294:1719-1723,

2001 [PubMed]

Phillips MS, Lawrence R, Sachidanandam R, et al: Chromosome-wide distribution of haplotype blocks and the role of recombination hot spots. Nat Genet 33:382-387, 2003 [PubMed]

Pickard BS, Millar JK, Porteous DJ, et al: Cytogenetics and gene discovery in psychiatric disorders. Pharmacogenomics J 5:81-88, 2005 [PubMed] Plomin R, Kosslyn SM: Genes, brain and cognition. Nat Neurosci 4:1153-1154, 2001 [PubMed]

Porteous DJ, Thomson P, Brandon NJ, et al: The genetics and biology of DISC1—an emerging role in psychosis and cognition. Biol Psychiatry 60:123-131, 2006 [PubMed]

Prescott CA, Kendler KS: Influence of ascertainment strategy on finding sex differences in genetic estimates from twin studies of alcoholism. Am J Med Genet 96:754-761, 2000 [PubMed]

Prescott CA, Aggen SH, Kendler KS: Sex-specific genetic influences on the comorbidity of alcoholism and major depression in a population-based sample of US twins.

Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:803-811, 2000 [PubMed]

Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P: Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945-959, 2000 [PubMed]

Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Steering Committee: A framework for interpreting genome-wide association studies of psychiatric disorders. Mol Psychiatry 14:10-17, 2009

Pulver AE, Nestadt G, Goldberg R, et al: Psychotic illness in patients diagnosed with velo-cardio-facial syndrome and their relatives. J Nerv Ment Dis 182:476-478, 1994 [PubMed]

Pulver AE, Mulle J, Nestadt G, et al: Genetic heterogeneity in schizophrenia: stratification of genome scan data using co-segregating related phenotypes. Mol Psychiatry 5:650-653, 2000 [PubMed]

Redon R, Ishikawa S, Fitch KR, et al: Global variation in copy number in the human genome. Nature 444:444-454, 2006 [PubMed] Reich DE, Cargill M, Bolk S, et al: Linkage disequilibrium in the human genome. Nature 411:199-204, 2001 [PubMed]

Reich DE, Schaffner SF, Daly MJ, et al: Human genome sequence variation and the influence of gene history, mutation and recombination. Nat Genet 32:135-142, 2002 [PubMed]

Rhee SH, Waldman ID: Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychol Bull 128:490-529, 2002 [PubMed]

Risch N: Genetic linkage and complex diseases, with special reference to psychiatric disorders. Genet Epidemiol 7:3-16; discussion 17-45, 1990a

Risch N: Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits, I: multilocus models. Am J Hum Genet 46:222-228, 1990b

Risch N, Merikangas K: The future of genetic studies of complex human diseases. Science 273:1516-1517, 1996 [PubMed]

Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, et al: Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298:2381-2385, 2002 [PubMed]

Rutter M: Genetic studies of autism: from the 1970s into the millennium. J Abnorm Child Psychol 28:3-14, 2000 [PubMed]

Sachidanandam R, Weissman D, Schmidt SC, et al: A map of human genome sequence variation containing 1.42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nature 409:928-933, 2001 [PubMed]

Schulze TG, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Akula N, et al: Two variants in Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) are independent genetic risk factors for bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2008 Dec 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Schuster SC: Next-generation sequencing transforms today's biology. Nat Methods 5(1):16-18, 2008 [PubMed]

Seaman SR, Muller-Myshok B: Rapid simulation of P values for product methods and multiple-testing adjustments in association studies. Am J Hum Genet 76:399-408, 2005 [PubMed]

Sebat J, Lakshmi B, Troge J, et al: Large-scale copy number polymorphism in the human genome. Science 305:525-528, 2004 [PubMed]

Sebat J, Lakshmi B, Malhotra D, et al: Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with autism. Science 316:445-449, 2007 [PubMed]

Segurado R, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Levinson DF, et al: Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part III: bipolar disorder. Am J Hum Genet 73:49-62, 2003 [PubMed]

Serretti A, Franchini L, Gasperini M, et al: Mode of inheritance in mood disorder families according to fluvoxamine response. Acta Psychiatr Scand 98:443-450, 1998 [PubMed]

Serretti A, Kato M, De Ronchi D, et al: Meta-analysis of serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) association with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy in depressed patients. Mol Psychiatry 12:247-257, 2007 [PubMed]

Shifman S, Darvasi A: The value of isolated populations. Nat Genet 28:309-310, 2001 [PubMed]

Shifman S, Bronstein M, Sternfeld M, et al: A highly significant association between a COMT haplotype and schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet 71:1296-1302, 2002 [PubMed]

Shifman S, Johannesson M, Bronstein M, et al: Genome-wide association identifies a common variant in the reelin gene that increases the risk of schizophrenia only in women. PLoS Genet 4(2):e28, 2008

Shprintzen RJ, Goldberg R, Golding-Kushner KJ, et al: Late-onset psychosis in the velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Am J Med Genet 42:141-142, 1992 [PubMed]

Sjoberg RL, Nilsson KW, Nordquist N, et al: Development of depression: sex and the interaction between environment and a promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 9:443-449, 2006 [PubMed]

Sklar P, Smoller JW, Fan J, et al: Whole-genome association study of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 13:558-569, 2008 [PubMed] Sobell JL, Mikesell MJ, McMurray CT: Genetics and etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia. Mayo Clin Proc 77:1068-1082, 2002 [PubMed]

Spielman RS, McGinnis RE, Ewens WJ: Transmission test for linkage disequilibrium: the insulin gene region and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Am J Hum Genet 52:506-516, 1993 [PubMed]

St. Clair D: Copy number variation and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 35:9-12, 2009

St. Clair D, Blackwood D, Muir W, et al: Association within a family of a balanced autosomal translocation with major mental illness. Lancet 336:13-16, 1990

Stefansson H, Rujescu D, Cichon S, et al: Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia. Nature 455:232-236, 2008 [PubMed]

Stranger BE, Forrest MS, Dunning M, et al: Relative impact of nucleotide and copy number variation on gene expression phenotypes. Science 315:848-853, 2007 [PubMed]

Sullivan PF, Neale MC, Kendler KS: Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 157:1552-1562, 2000 [Full Text] [PubMed]

Sullivan PF, Kendler KS, Neale MC: Schizophrenia as a complex trait: evidence from a meta-analysis of twin studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:1187-1192, 2003 [PubMed]

Sullivan PF, de Geus EJ, Willemsen G, et al: Genome-wide association for major depressive disorder: a possible role for the presynaptic protein piccolo. Mol Psychiatry 2008a Dec 9 [Epub ahead of print]

Sullivan PF, Lin D, Tzeng JY, et al: Genomewide association for schizophrenia in the CATIE study: results of stage 1. Mol Psychiatry 13:570-584, 2008b

Surtees PG, Wainwright NW, Willis-Owen SA, et al: Social adversity, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 59:224-229, 2006 [PubMed]

Sutcliffe JS, Delahanty RJ, Prasad HC, et al: Allelic heterogeneity at the serotonin transporter locus (SLC6A4) confers susceptibility to autism and rigid-compulsive behaviors. Am J Hum Genet 77:265-279, 2005 [PubMed]

Sybert VP, McCauley E: Turner's syndrome. N Engl J Med 351:1227-1238, 2004 [PubMed]

Szatmari P, Paterson AD, Zwaigenbaum L, et al: Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Autism Genome Project Consortium. Nat Genet 39:319-328, 2007 [PubMed]

Tamiya G, Shinya M, Imanishi T, et al: Whole genome association study of rheumatoid arthritis using 27 039 microsatellites. Hum Mol Genet 14:2305-2321, 2005 [PubMed]

Tannu NS, Hemby SE: Methods for proteomics in neuroscience. Prog Brain Res 158:41-82, 2006 [PubMed] Tienari PJ, Wynne LC: Adoption studies of schizophrenia. Ann Med 26:233-237, 1994 [PubMed]

Tienari P, Wynne LC, Sorri A, et al: Genotype-environment interaction in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: long-term follow-up study of Finnish adoptees. Br J Psychiatry 184:216-222, 2004 [PubMed]

Turecki G, Grof P, Grof E, et al: Mapping susceptibility genes for bipolar disorder: a pharmacogenetic approach based on excellent response to lithium. Mol Psychiatry 6:570-578, 2001 [PubMed]

Tyndale RF: Genetics of alcohol and tobacco use in humans. Ann Med 35:94-121, 2003 [PubMed]

van Dyck CH, Malison RT, Jacobsen LK, et al: Increased dopamine transporter availability associated with the 9-repeat allele of the SLC6A3 gene. J Nucl Med 46:745-751, 2005

van Grootheest DS, Cath DC, Beekman AT, et al: Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. Twin Res Hum Genet 8:450-458, 2005 Van Tol HH, Wu CM, Guan HC, et al: Multiple dopamine D4 receptor variants in the human population. Nature 358:149-152, 1992

Vandenbergh DJ, Persico AM, Hawkins AL, et al: Human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) maps to chromosome 5p15.3 and displays a VNTR. Genomics 14:1104-1106, 1992 [PubMed]

VanNess SH, Owens MJ, Kilts CD: The variable number of tandem repeats element in DAT1 regulates in vitro dopamine transporter density. BMC Genet 6:55, 2005 [PubMed]

Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Cook EH Jr: Molecular genetics of autism spectrum disorder. Mol Psychiatry 9:819-832, 2004 [PubMed] Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, et al: The sequence of the human genome. Science 291:1304-1351, 2001 [PubMed] Visootsak J, Sherman S: Neuropsychiatric and behavioral aspects of trisomy 21. Curr Psychiatry Rep 9:135-140, 2007 [PubMed] Vogels A, Fryns JP: The Prader-Willi syndrome and the Angelman syndrome. Genet Couns 13:385-396, 2002 [PubMed]

Wang H, Thomas DC, Pe'er I, et al: Optimal two-stage genotyping designs for genome-wide association scans. Genet Epidemiol 30:356-368, 2006 [PubMed] Wang WY, Barratt BJ, Clayton DG, et al: Genome-wide association studies: theoretical and practical concerns. Nat Rev Genet 6:109-118, 2005 [PubMed] Weinshilboum R: Inheritance and drug response. N Engl J Med 348:529-537, 2003 [PubMed]

Weiss LA, Shen Y, Korn JM, et al: Association between microdeletion and microduplication at 16p11.2 and autism. N Engl J Med 358:667-675, 2008 [PubMed]

Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium: Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls. Nature 447:661-678, 2007

Wilhelm K, Mitchell PB, Niven H, et al: Life events, first depression onset and the serotonin transporter gene. Br J Psychiatry 188:210-215, 2006 [PubMed]

Williams J, Spurlock G, Holmans P, et al: A meta-analysis and transmission disequilibrium study of association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 3:141-149, 1998 [PubMed]

World Health Organization: The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1992

Zalsman G, Huang YY, Oquendo MA, et al: Association of a triallelic serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTT LPR) polymorphism with stressful life events and severity of depression. Am J Psychiatry 163:1588-1593, 2006 [Full Text] [PubMed]

Zubenko GS, Hughes HB 3rd, Maher BS, et al: Genetic linkage of region containing the CREB1 gene to depressive disorders in women from families with recurrent, early onset, major depression. Am J Med Genet 114:980-987, 2002 [PubMed]

Zwick ME, Cutler DJ, Chakravarti A: Patterns of genetic variation in Mendelian and complex traits. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 1:387-407, 2000 [PubMed]

Copyright © 2009 American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 4. Chemical Neuroanatomy of the Primate Brain


Other chapters in this textbook address the questions of how psychotropic medications affect the brain to reduce the severity of the clinical features and symptoms of psychiatric disorders and to produce the side effects that frequently accompany their administration. Appropriately, much attention has been directed toward the neurotransmitter systems that are the targets of these medications. A potential consequence of this emphasis is the idea, in its simplest form, that an excess or deficit in the functional activity of a given neurotransmitter is the pathophysiological basis for the clinical features of interest. Although variants of this view have been very useful in motivating investigations of the molecular underpinnings and biochemical features of neurotransmitter systems and in spurring the development of novel psychopharmacological agents that influence these systems, in the extreme case this perspective tends to consider a given psychiatric disorder as the consequence solely of the postulated disturbance in a neurotransmitter system.

In addition to this limited conceptual perspective, neurotransmitter-based views of psychiatric disorders sometimes seem to attribute behavioral, emotional, or cognitive functions to neurotransmitters instead of explicitly recognizing that neurotransmitters have defined actions on receptors, whereas behaviors, emotions, and cognitive abilities represent emergent properties of the integrated activity of large networks of neurons. This view of psychiatric disorders was influenced, at least in part, by extrapolations from earlier successes in the study of Parkinson's disease, which was then viewed as a single-neurotransmitter (i.e., dopamine) disease resulting from a localized neuropathology (e.g., cell death in the substantia nigra).

In recent years, however, greater attention has been given to neural circuitry-based views of psychiatric disorders that reflect a fuller appreciation of the fact that neurotransmitters act in an anatomically constrained fashion to produce specific biochemical effects at the cellular level and that the localization of function(s) is a consequence of the flow of information processing through the neural circuits formed by neurotransmitter systems (Lewis 2002). Consequently, the goal of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the major neurotransmitter systems of the primate brain, with reference to the rodent brain where appropriate, and to consider these systems within the context of the anatomical pathways in which they participate.

Bipolar Disorder Uncovered

Bipolar Disorder Uncovered

If you're wanting to learn about bipolar disorder... Then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read! You are about to take an in-depth look at bipolar disorder. It's all you need to know about bipolar disorder to help you or a loved one lead a normal life. It doesn't matter if you or a loved one have been recently diagnosed or been struggling with bipolar disorder for years - This guide will tell you everything you need to know, without spending too much brainpower!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment