Conclusion

The increased burden of physical illness and high rates of undiagnosed diabetes and cardiovascular disease provide a strong imperative to screen for these conditions in people with SMI (table 4). Most of the criteria relating to the illnesses and their screening tests are fulfilled. Although some of the criteria used to evaluate a screening programme are not satisfied, this is largely because formal screening has not yet taken place. There is a clear need to introduce screening for diabetes and...

Second Generation Antipsychotics

Second-generation antipsychotics are a major source of concern regarding weight gain. Attempts have been made to identify specific receptor-binding profiles of antipsychotics to aid in the prediction of propensity for weight gain 23 , however there is much individual variation, and most of the information available at present comes from clinical observations. In a comprehensive meta-analysis of weight change after 10 weeks of treatment at a standard dose of antipsychotics, mean increases in...

Common Side Effects Associated with Antipsychotic Induced Hyperprolactinaemia

It is important to note that there are no standardised methods for measuring galact-orrhoea. Beumont et al. 29 describe massaging the breast for 3 min and then measuring the volume of milk produced. Others use a milk pump to extract milk and or just simply ask the patient. Prior to the introduction of antipsychotic medication in the 1950s neither galactorrhoea nor gynaecomastia had been noted as important complaints from patients with schizophrenia. However, Robinson 30 found an incidence rate...

Methods

There are different definitions of MetS, the most commonly referenced of which are those proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III), European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), International Diabetes Federation Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group (IDF), American Heart Association National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA NHLBI), World Health Organization (WHO), and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists...

Role of Leptin in Inflammation and Its Possible Connection to Obesity in Schizophrenia

In most obese patients, obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation of white adipose tissue. This results from the chronic activation of the innate immune system that subsequently leads to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes 41 . In obesity, the white adipose tissue is characterized by the increased synthesis and secretion of a range of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6. In addition, the adipose tissue is infiltrated by...

References

1 Brown S, Inskip H, Barraclough B Causes of the 'H excess mortality of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 2000 177 212-217. 2 Dalton SO, Mellemkjaer L, Thomassen L, Mortensen 12 PB, Johansen C Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969-1993. Schizophr Res 2005 75 315-324. 13 3 Osborn DJP, Levy G, Nazareth I, Peterson I, Islam A, King MB Relative risk of cardiovascular and cancer mortality in people with severe mental illness from the United Kingdom's...

Mood Stabilizers and Impact on Insulin Resistance in Women with Bipolar Disorder

Women with BD are often treated with psychotropic agents, including mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants, whose effects on reproductive function and IR are not fully understood. Medications may impact weight and endocrine abnormalities in a variety of ways that contribute to IR. For example, it has been theorized that valproate can influence the development of menstrual abnormalities by decreasing estrogen levels, increasing luteinizing hormone and increasing...