The Red Wine Diet

The Red Wine Diet

This diet is the single best way to lose weight if you'd rather not spend every spare minute on the treadmill and eating carrots and broth. You can lose the same amount of weight or MORE just by following the easy instructions in this ebook from Art Mcdermott, Certified Nutritionist and Strength Coach. Believe it or not, red wine is not a guilt pleasure. It is a very good and helpful part of your diet. The antioxidants in red wine alone can help you a lot in your quest to stay healthy! You don't have to just eat kale and carrots to lose weight Why not have a little something that tastes good as well? You will learn a lot in this ebook, including why alcohol is not your enemy in weight loss, the real health benefits of red wine that no one talks about, and addictive foods to avoid. Don't just avoid foods Get some red wine too! Continue reading...

The Red Wine Diet Summary


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Chemistry and Biosynthesis

Pathway via phenylalanine or tyrosine (Mann, 1978) and major examples are coumaric acid (single hydroxyl group) and caffeic acid (Fig. 9.3). Oxidation of the side chain can produce derivatives of benzoic acid such as proto-catechuic acid and gentisic acid. These compounds are usually found in nature as glucose ethers or in ester combination with quinic acid. Other phenolic compounds of interest include resveratrol, a hydroxy stilbene found in red wine (Pace-Asciak et al., 1995), oleuropein, a bitter principle of olives (Visioli and Galli, 1994), and complex compounds which may be derived by oxidative coupling of more simple phenolics, e.g. salvianolic acid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine (Lin et al., 1996). Some major dietary sources of phenolic compounds are outlined in Table 9.1. The daily intake of flavonoids has been estimated at between 20 mg and 1 g (Hertog et al., 1993). The flavanols, particularly catechin and catechin-gallate...

Absorption and Bioavailability

Information about the absorption of phenolic acids in humans is very limited. Our own recent research data suggest that plasma levels of caffeic acid are significantly increased within 1-4 h of drinking a glass of red wine (Abu-Amsha-Caccetta, unpublished results). The increase in plasma caffeic acid occurred using red wine with or without the alcohol removed (Fig. 9.5).

Methods for Assessment of Oxidative Damage in Vivo

Plasma caffeic acid concentration measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in subjects who consumed 200 ml of either red wine, de-alcoholized red wine, phenolic-stripped red wine or water (n 12). Assessment of the in vivo effect of dietary phenolic compounds can be very difficult. Recently, we have studied the effects of antioxidant polyphenolics in beverages such as red wine on LDL oxidation (Abu-Amsha et al., 1996). Since oxidative damage to low-density lipoproteins has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease, the rich flavonoid content of red wine has led to its appeal as possibly being beneficial against heart disease. While a number of in vitro studies clearly show strong antioxidant effects of red wine phenolics against LDL oxidation (Frankel et al., 1993 Abu-Amsha et al., 1996 Puddey and Croft, 1997), several human intervention trials have given conflicting results (Fuhrman et al., 1995 Sharpe et al., 1995 De Rijke et al., 1996)....

Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Disease

Epidemiologic studies have found an inverse association between flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.51 Mechanistically, most flavonoids can increase the resistance of LDL to oxidation in vitro however, ex vivo investigations of LDL oxidation in human studies have not proven consistent. There is a body of evidence showing that flavonoids have effects on other atherogenic mechanisms. For example, flavanols inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation52 and flavanones reduce blood lipids.53 Flavonoid-rich grape juice, red wine, and coca are antithrombotic as they inhibit platelet aggregation and extend bleeding time.54 Animal and in vitro studies and human intervention trials are largely consistent in showing that flavonoids can improve endothelial function and may reduce blood pressure. In human intervention trials, black tea, cocoa, red wine, and soy flavonoids promote endothelial-dependent vasodila-tion and improve vascular dysfunction via actions on nitric oxide...

Links Between Wholefood Antioxidants and Heart Disease Cancer and Vision Loss

Red wine is a whole-food product that has been widely associated with antioxidant effects (Renaud and de Lorgeril, 1992 Frankel et al., 1993). It was one of the first whole-food products shown to have measurable antioxidant effects in vivo, including increased resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation (Fuhrman et al., 1995 Whitehead et al., 1995 Miyagi et al., 1997). LDL oxidation can also be inhibited in vitro by many other whole-food products including broccoli (Plumb et al., 1997), grape juice (Lanningham-Foster et al., 1995 Miyagi et al., 1997), soybean isoflavonoids (Tikkanen et al., 1998), garlic (Ide et al., 1997), blueberries (Laplaud et al., 1997) and cranberry extracts (Wilson et al., 1998). Vision loss can result from oxidative damage to the macula of the eye (Seddon et al., 1994). Consumption of foods rich in antioxidants may slow or prevent the development of age-related macular degeneration (see Chapter 22). By reducing oxidative damage to the macula,...

Problems Associated with Dependence on One Antioxidant

Problems with single supplements have also been observed in animal models. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound from red wine with an antioxidant capacity in vitro (Siemann and Creasy, 1992) and has received much attention. Resveratrol may inhibit cancer in mice (Jang et al., 1997), however dietary supplementation with it is not associated with reduced lipid peroxidation in rats (Turrens et al., 1997) and may even be associated with increased atherogenesis (Wilson et al., 1996).

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The MAO inhibitors irreversibly bind to mitochondrial MAO, preventing oxidative deamination of the monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. These bind to both forms of MAO (MAOA and MAOB) and include the drugs phenelzine, tranylcypromine, and isocarboxazid (Baldessarini 1996). These drugs also prevent hepatic breakdown of tyramine (a substance found in many foods such as aged cheese, red wine, and figs) by MAOB, which can precipitate a hypertensive crisis. A newer class of reversible, short-acting MAO inhibitors (e.g., moclobemide) are being investigated that are selective to MAOA, and thus do not have the same tyramine toxicity problems. Thus, the antidepressant effect of MAO inhibitors is believed to lie in their ability to increase available monoamines.

Problems with the Evaluation of Wholefood Antioxidant Consumption Studies

Tests have been developed which compare the oxidative resistance of plasma to a-tocopherol analogues. The test rates the antioxidant capacity of a plasma sample as being greater, equal to or less than a given concentration of standard. Problems with the method are reproducability and equipment needs (Cao and Prior, 1997). Plasma antioxidant capacity can be estimated by exposing the plasma to an oxidant followed by measurement of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) produced by oxidative stress. This method has been applied to studies of red wine and suggests that it has the ability to increase the oxidative resistance of plasma lipids (Fuhrman et al., 1995), although the results are not universally accepted (de Rijke et al., 1996). Finally, isoprostanes are produced as a result of LDL lipid peroxidation (Morrow et al., 1990). Recently developed immunoassays for isoprostane may become useful for evaluating long-term changes in antioxidant protection from whole-food...

Dietary Intake Absorption and Metabolism

Average intakes of flavonols and flavones have ranged from 6 mg day-1 in Finland to 64 mg day-1 in Japan, with intermediate intakes in the USA (13 mg day-1), Italy (27 mg day-1) and the Netherlands (33 mg day-1). These estimates were based on recent analyses of five flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, luteolin and apigenin) in composite food samples for populations in the Seven Countries Study (Hertog et al., 1995). Dietary sources of the flavonols and flavones varied between different countries, with major contributions from tea in Japan (90 ) and the Netherlands (64 ), red wine in Italy (46 ), and vegetables and fruits in Finland (100 ) and the USA (80 ). The main sources of flavonols and flavones in the human diet are shown in Table 15.1. Herbs and spices, although not consumed universally in large quantities, are also rich in phenolic compounds and constitute the largest proportion of known natural antioxidants. leek, apricot, red wine,

The effect of wine on the risk of coronary heart disease

The incongruity between established dietary risk factors and death from CHD was highlighted by the reporting of the French paradox that is, why the French have a relatively low incidence of CHD while consuming a diet rich in saturated fat, mainly from butter and cream (Renaud and de Longeril, 1992). Epidemiological data from Denmark advanced this hypothesis by demonstrating a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke in subjects who consumed low or moderate amounts of wine (three glasses per day) (Gronbaek et al., 1995). A possible explanation for this effect is the relatively high consumption of phenolic compounds found in red wine The majority of experimental studies which have investigated the effect of wine on markers of CHD have yielded favourable results. However, it is unclear whether white or red wine is more effective and to what extent the alcoholic content of the beverage contributes to CHD risk reduction (Klatsky et al., 1997). This aspect has been reviewed in...

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract

Recent studies performed on isolated rat hearts treated with red wine extract before ischaemic arrest have provided evidence that GSPEs from red wine are effective cardioprotective agents.119 The red wine extract reduced myocardial infarct size as well as improving post-ischaemic ventricular functions. In another study by the same group,119 rats given oral GSPE for three weeks were resistant to subsequent ischaemic injury to the isolated hearts. Other research has shown that as well as acting as a cardiopro-tective agent directly, GSPE also prevents atherosclerosis, which is a major risk factor for heart disease. It has been shown that oxidation of the polyunsaturated lipid components of LDL damages arteries and it is only this oxidised form of cholesterol that leads to atherosclerosis.58 To determine whether the 'French paradox' was due to the antioxidant properties of red wine, an in vitro study was carried out.120 De-alcoholised Californian red wine was used to prepare the...

Antioxidants and the Redox Biology of Life

According to a November 30, 2006 Wall Street Journal1 article, resveratrol supplements are the current hot supplements in America. They have become so popular with Americans that retailers are unable to keep up with consumer demand. A plant phytochemical, flavonoid and stilbene, and antioxidant molecule, media portrayal of resveratrol as a possible antiaging elixir that is life-prolonging has greatly boosted sales of this dietary supplement. The buzz about resveratrol commenced when investigators from Harvard Medical School published a paper in the journal Nature in August 2003 about this phytochemical, which is found in red wine and grape skins.2 The investigators found that resveratrol directly influenced critical genes and prolonged lifespan by 30 to 70 percent in yeast cells, citing unpublished data of preliminary results that the lifespan of fruit flies and earthworms could also be extended. Subsequent studies have demonstrated resveratrol's capability to improve health and...


The effect of non-nutrient antioxidant preparations on LDL receptor activity. HepG2 cells were incubated for 24 h with the indicated preparations of green tea, red wine or different extracts of green tea prepared as described in the 'Methods' section. The amount of green tea extracts and red wine used were based on containing the equivalent of 100 M epigallocatechin gallate and 100 M quercetin respectively. Control cells were not exposed to any preparation. The LDL receptor activity was measured in duplicate using the LDL-colloidal gold method as described in the 'Methods' section. The results represent the calcium-dependent LDL binding activity of the cells, expressed as ng LDL bound mg-1 cell protein, and are means SEM of triplicate incubations. biphasic 'up-then-down' effect. Up to 50 M, it progressively upregulated the receptor but then it downregulated it at higher concentrations. The biphasic effect was specific for a-tocopherol in that the 8 and 7 analogues...


Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin found in grapes, Polygonum cuspidatum, and a number of other medicinal plants. Red wine is the main source of resveratrol in the human diet. It has been implicated as the responsible factor behind the so-called French paradox, an epidemiological phenomenon of low rate of heart disease among French and Greek populations despite their high fatty diet.109 The cardioprotective properties of resveratrol are corroborated by its antioxidant properties, antiplatelet aggregation properties, and its ability to elevate production of nitric oxide and high-density lipoprotein.110 Based on epidemiological data, carcinogenesis and coronary heart disease are linked to dietary lifestyle and share common pathways at the molecular level.111 Resveratrol has gained popularity in recent years following numerous reports indicating its cancer chemopreventive activity.112 Resveratrol is a selective inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1A1, a mixed-functional oxidase needed...


The polyphenolic flavonoids found in red wine and cocoa have received the most press attention. Red wine polyphenols are related to what is known as the French Paradox, the term given to the observation that French people remain slim and have low incidences of coronary heart disease despite eating a diet high in saturated fats. It has been suggested that the tendency of the French to consume higher quantities of red wine (containing the polyphenol resveratrol) than Americans is the reason for lower heart disease rates. Study of the average French diet finds that portion sizes are smaller, dietary fats mostly come from dairy and vegetable sources (very little from animal fat), fish is eaten more often, snacking between meals is limited, convenience foods are avoided, and sugar intake is lower than the average American diet. It is most likely these reasons, and not resveratrol, that account for the difference in cardiovascular disease rates between the two countries. Cocoa polyphenols...

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