Conversion of Morphine to Heroin Diacetylmorphine

The following is a step-by-step description of morphine extraction in a typical Mainland Southeast Asian laboratory. An empty 55-gallon oil drum is placed on bricks about a foot above the ground and a fire is built under the drum. Thirty gallons of water are added to the drum and brought to a boil. Ten to fifteen kilograms of raw opium are added to the boiling water. With stirring, the raw opium eventually dissolves in the boiling water, while soil, leaves, twigs, and other non-soluble...

Inhibitory and Excitatory Effects of Nociception at the Spinal Cord Level

Excitatory Transmitter Glutamate

Within the spinal cord, either an enhancement and or an inhibition of ascending nociceptive afferences come into effect. The spinal cord is also considered as the major site where a number of analgesic agents initiate their mode of action through direct binding at selective inhibitory receptor sites (Figure I-19). Figure 1-19. Summary of the different receptor sites at the dorsal horn related to inhibition and or excitation of incoming nociceptive afferent impulses Figure 1-19. Summary of the...

Mechanism Of Action Of Tricyclic Antidepressants

Tricyclic Antidepressants

The termination of action of biogenic amines norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) is determined by reuptake into the presynaptic terminal. Drugs that block reuptake, such as tricyclic antidepressants, increase the efficacy of those transmitters by allowing them to remain in the synaptic cleft and activate the receptors longer (Figure I-51). It should be noted that although the exact mechanism of action of TCAs as analgesics is not known, there appears to be a close relationship between the...

Opioids Inducing Nausea And Emesis

Nausea Vomiting Receptors

The main physiological consequence of nausea and emesis is the removal of toxins, which is an important protective reflex mechanism being induced during food intoxication. It however, is also seen after radiation or chemotherapy, after the administration of an opioid-based anesthetic regimen or during long-term therapy for alleviation of chronic pain. About 20 of all patients experience nausea and or emesis after opioid anesthesia. The cause of such reaction is a stimulation of the...

Half Life of Detection and Cut Offs in Urine Drug Screening

Drug screening tests offer a fast and reliable way to demask a possible drug consumer. Various tests are available as individual tests for 12 drugs and medications as well as different combinations are offered which can be used in diverse circumstances, according to customer needs (Table V-4). They range from quick, competitive, stringent immunoassays to directly qualitative indications of drugs in urine. Depending on the time of abuse there is a large variability in half-life during which the...

Common Comprehensions on Prescription Drug Abuse

Small Pupils Drugs

The street value of a prescription drug is dependent on whether it is a brand or generic. Even abusers know that they get what they pay for when buying a brandname drug. Drugs that have a quick onset - immediate-release or injectable drugs -are more sought after, as well as those that have a greater intensity. The demand for drugs with a short duration of action is consistent with the rate hypothesis of reinforcement - the faster the drug enters the system, the quicker it causes the dopamine...